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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 9

Книги

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N OP Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2004
This contribution deals with opportunities to integrate ecological objectives into landscape modelling. We start with the behaviour of farmers. By depicting the behaviour of farmers with respect to land use we determine farm and field sizes, as been dependent on prices, natural conditions, and structural variables, such as farm technologies. Then we pursue the idea that a geometrical interpretation of land use can help us to define an interface between farming, landscape modelling, and ecological concerns. This interface goes along economic rationales for income of farmers and ecological rationales for a redesign of landscapes. Next, for integrating ecological oriented nature components into a landscape planning, as been based on economic incentives, a payment scheme has to be introduced. Such payment scheme becomes part of farmers’ objective functions in a non-linear model. Core decision variables are the longitudinal stretch of field sizes and the transversal stretch of farm sizes. Then, given various natural frames within an overarching subdivision of field parcels, farms and the landscape are optimised. The suggested approach can be sequentially solved taking into consideration natural conditions and behaviour. Furthermore, a central focus is on policy instruments: 1. We cater for impacts of price policies on landscape structure (farm size) and ecology (heterogeneity of fields). Note, in this context, that it is important to depict the growth of fields as being a consequence of imposed price pressure, modern technology application, and income aspirations. 2. The ecological impacts of this process, also from intensity of farming, are addressed and measured as a diversity index. 3. Policies can be selected that maintain farm income and correct for negative ecological effects of field size changes. For this reason we suggest a principal agent approach and offer objective functions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Agnar Hegrenes, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Gudbrand Lien
Durban, 2003
A model is presented to investigate the optimal economic life cycle of grass leys with winter damage problems in northern Norway and to determine the threshold of winter damage before it is profitable to reseed. A two-level hierarchic Markov process has been constructed using the MLHMP software. The model takes uncertainty concerning yield potential, damage estimation and weather dependent random fluctuations into account. A Kalman filter technique is used for updating of knowledge on yield potential and damage level.

The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Norwegian farms. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among farms, it is concluded that decision support concerning optimal economic life cycle of grass leys should be done at farm level. The results also show the importance of using a flexible dynamic replacement strategy. Use of the model for a specific farm situation is illustrated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Johannes Roseboom, Paul Diederen, Arie Kuyvenhoven
2003
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves, one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of return between the two portfolios) would increase the budget for smallholder projects by 29% and decrease that of commercial farmer projects by 26%. Total economic welfare would increase with 2.1% and there is a modest distributional effect: smallholder welfare increases by 14% and commercial farmer welfare decreases by 11%. In other words, more efficiency in the selection of agricultural R&D projects favors poor smallholders. We also analyze the effects of a premium on research benefits accruing to smallholders and find them to be limited. Rather than trying to shift the R&D opportunity curve artificially, we conclude that policies that can help to increase the profitability of research investments across the board (such as investment in infrastructure, development of markets, and education) and hence shift the R&D opportunity curve for poor smallholders outwards should be pursued more vigorously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Anna Haring
2002
Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic arable and dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which integrates simulation modelling and focus groups, profitability of model farms is analysed ex-post for year the 1999 and their potential development simulated until 2008 under Agenda 2000 and three alternative policy scenarios. For each policy scenario potential farm adaptation strategies are analysed.

Size, structure, productivity, achieved output prices and policy surrounding of typical organic farms differ widely between countries and farm types. Great differences in the contribution of payments to total farm profit and farm family labour remuneration are observed. Dairy model farms are expected to slightly benefit from Agenda 2000, while arable farms are more susceptible to price reductions realised in the Agenda 2000 package. In adaptation to Agenda 2000 organic dairy farms are expected to grow, while arable farms are more likely to diversify production or envisage valued adding strategies. The effects of alternative policy scenarios on profitability of typical farms are similar in all countries. The choice of adaptation strategy of farmers in the different countries, however, vary significantly, mainly due to the current market situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Edward Lorenz
2002
This paper draws on J.R. Commons theory of institutional change to make some suggestions for integrating the political dimension into an analysis of routines and organisational learning, or the processes that change routines. The programmatic advice offered here remains incomplete, though, as the cognitive aspect of routines is examined from the partial angle of the relational and organisation-specific knowledge that individuals require in order to get the job done. In the concluding section of the paper, the author suggest that research based on the cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition may provide the tools for integrating this latter building-block into a Commons inspired account of routines and organisational learning.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Lucio Biggiero, Domenico Laise
2002
Organizational decisions are characterized by a multiplicity of choice criteria. This property, which in reality affects virtually all human behaviors, prevents use of the standard (neoclassical) theory of decisions based on the maximization of a single criterion. Rather, the outranking methods developed by the French school of operational research make it possible to deal with multicriterial choices and avoid the defects of the naive method. This paper develops a paradigmatic example in order to show the essential effects of the outranking methods and their compatibility with the theory of limited rationality and satisfactory choices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-08-2003
Miguel Pina e Cunha, Joao Vieira Da Cunha, Ken Kamoche
2002
Drawing on a grounded theory research we present a model of organizational improvisation which asserts that this phenomenon is triggered by an unexpected important event brought about by a moderate level of turbulence, relying on a minimal structure and simple resources. The success of improvisation is shown to be affected by the level of equivocality and by the perceived level of task complexity, and results in increased group cohesiveness and faster and less costly future actions. In conclusion the authors argue in favor of a contingency view of organizational improvisation and contend that our model suggests the possibility of a dialectical approach to organizational improvisation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
Mette Praest Knudsen
2002
This paper explores two questions; first, which relationships are relatively more important for New Product Development processes and through which mechanisms is knowledge transferred? Recent research has either focused on a general broad view relying on survey data or a more in-depth approach, which allows for detailed mapping of the underlying processes, but with no possibility of drawing more general conclusions. The data sources that are drawn upon in this study combines these two data sources. The findings show that relationships with external partners are important at the early stages of the product development processes, whereas in the later stages only competitors contribute positively to innovative success. Moreover, depending upon the organizational form different mechanisms and potential problems can be identified.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Bente R. Lowendahl, Oivind Revang
2001
One of the most important and difficult challenges in dynamic competitive environments is the question of how the organization is structured in order to achieve efficiency, agility, and adaptability simultaneously. This paper presents an effort at theory development, based on in-depth studies of highly knowledge intensive firms, and we propose three key dimensions driving the complexity of organizing: the extent to which tasks (activities) are predefinable ex ante (formerly described as task characteristics), the degree of interdependence between tasks, subtasks, and the people performing the tasks, and the type of coordination required.
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