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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 40

Книги

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R ST U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Robert P. Bood
1999
This paper is about the role of scenarios in strategic management. Generally, a scenario depicts some feasible future state of organizational's environment and mostly includes the dynamic sequence of interacting events, conditions and changes that is nessasary to reach that state. The scenario approach changed considerably during the last two deacades. This reflected in the different functions ascribed to scenarios. The more traditional functions (in first generation scenarios) are tool for evaluation and selection of ctrategies, integration of various kinds of data, and exploration and identification of future possibilities. The more recent ones (in second generation scenarios) are making managers aware of environmental uncertainties, stretching of managers' mental models, and triggering and accelerating processes of organizational learning. The paper discusses especially the later cluster of functions wich are closely linked to each other.
By linking the dynamic-development process to Kolb's learning cycle and strategic management, the strategic learning cycle can be enhanced. The strategic learning cycle elucidates a number of bottlenecks that may seriously hinder learning within strategic management. Scenarios seem to dissolve these bottelnecks and in doing so support strategic learning.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Ida J. Terluin, Gabe S. Venema
2004
The menu approach of the second pillar of the CAP allows regions/countries to select those rural development measures which suit their needs best. The selection from the second pillar menu, which consists of 22 rural development measures, has to be reported in the Rural Development Plan. In this article we test the hypothesis ‘Regions select a few measures from the menu which are according to their rural development needs.’ For this purpose, we analysed three main steps which have to be taken in the application of the menu approach: (1) the identification of rural development priorities; (2) the selection of rural development measures to relieve these rural development priorities; and (3) the allocation of financial means to these rural development measures. The analysis is restricted to eight regions in the EU: four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia). It appears that the case study regions selected quite a large number of rural development measures from the menu, varying from 12 to 18. The analysis reveals that doubts can be raised whether all selected measures are according to the rural development priorities of the case study regions. In addition, it seems that rural development measures are sometimes interpreted in different ways by regions and that the relationship between the rural development measures and the three objectives of the second pillar is not unambiguous. Therefore, some reformulation of rural development measures and objectives of the second pillar is suggested at the end of this article. The findings of our analysis may serve as input in the debate on the future orientation of EU rural development policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Klaus Salhofer, Герхард Штрейхер
2004
Since participation in agri-environmental programmes is voluntary, associated with opportunity costs (most of these programmes aim at reducing output), and financial compensation for participation is typically a fixed amount per hectare, a tendency is likely to arise for some sort of self selection: farms in favourable regions which face high opportunity costs from foregone output are less likely to participate than other, more disadvantaged farms. When trying to estimate the effects of such programmes on agricultural output, this self-selection bias can pose severe problems, as a direct comparison of participants with non-participants is likely to lead to erroneous results. This paper tries to highlight the effects of this self-selection process in the context of the Austrian OEPUL programme and its effects on grain yields. After identifying various sources of this problem, some possible remedies are presented and discussed. The empirical analysis is based on farm-level accounting data linked with the official agricultural support data (INVEKOS) for a sample of 1327 Austrian grain farms. Two years of data before (1993 and 1994) and one year (1997) after EU accession are utilized to estimate programme effects on grain yields.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Alfons Oude Lansink, Kyosti Pietola
2002
This paper applies a semi-parametric approach to estimating a generalised model of investments in energy installations. The model accounts for irreversibility and lumpiness of investments by linking a parametric specification of the unobservable dynamic shadow price to observed investment behaviour using a non-parametric specification of the adjustment cost function. The results suggest that marginal costs of investments in energy installations increase quickly at small investment levels, whereas the increase slows down at higher investment levels. Therefore, standard parametric adjustment cost models are likely biased such that they over-estimate small investments and under-estimate large investments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-03-2004
Michael Spence
Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2002, cерия "Les Prix Nobel"
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Майкла Спенса по случаю получения им в 2001 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за анализ рынка с асимметричной информацией. В лекции автор знакомит с введением в теорию сигналов и даёт краткую характеристику информационной структуре рыночного типа ведения хозяйствования. Материал изложен простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Detlef Deumlich, J. Thiere, H. I. Reuter, L. Völker, R. Funk, Joachim Kiesel
2004
This paper presents a comparative method (SICOM) to evaluate complex site conditions at the level of a Federal State (Brandenburg) and at different areal units. The methodology uses primary site conditions and provides the possibility to objectively compare and judge different ecological questions. Objects with heterogeneous content are pooled in comparison groups. Consideration of the main site characteristics allows a goal-oriented allocation of subsidies. The use of SICOM is demonstrated for the wind and water erosion risk assessment across different scales from Federal State down to a parcel of land. The “parcel” aggregation-level proves to be useful to assess the erosion risk. Larger scales are less useful in the assessment of subsidies policy with regard to erosion risk. SICOM is demonstrated to be suitable for comparing and assessing regional aspects more objectively.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Simon Maxwell
Durban, 2003
Rural development has not received the priority and attention warranted by the present and future concentration of poverty in rural areas. Is this perhaps because rural development agencies present conflicting narratives? A framework is presented within which to answer that question, and is then applied to the recent policy statements of the EU, FAO, IFAD and the World Bank. Each policy statement is compelling in its own way, but the strategies are not consistent. A narrative is needed which: recognises the rapid pace of change in rural areas; acknowledges the overriding need for diversification out of agriculture; builds market institutions for growth; and works effectively within the current international consensus on poverty reduction, emphasising opportunity, empowerment and security.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Tapani Yrjola, Jukka Kola
2002
This study aims at assessing the costs and benefits of multifunctional agriculture, and it is one of the very first studies using a quantitative approach to this new subject. The starting point is that if current farm subsidies are regarded as means to maintain the multifunctional characteristics of agriculture, what happens if subsidies are reduced. The effects of the decline in agricultural support on multifunctional characteristics of agriculture in Finland are estimated using the cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Only a part of the consequences can be assessed by the CBA due to lack of data on the economic value of many elements of multifunctional agriculture. Hence, the results should not be generalised too strongly, but they still provide useful information for the political decisionmaking.

Concerning further research, we should study, inter alia, what the so-called correct level of compensation for the adequate supply of public goods would be, and what kind of means of agricultural policy are the most efficient to unambiguously enhance the multifunctional character of agriculture.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003
Dieter Bogenhold
2003
The paper tries to provide some arguments in favour of the necessity to include soft dimensions like a social network perspective to enriche discussion about business start-ups. The creation of a venture is not only based on traditional key elements as labour, capital and technology but also on social assets which are commonly called social capital. The analysis of social capital in the framework of the establishment of new corporations gives a convincing example for the need of further socioeconomic research. Social network analysis can enrich traditional economic research and can highlight limitations of pure neo-classic thought.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Albino Prada, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Maria Xose Vazquez, Mario Solino
2002
This article presents results from an experiment into attribute perception and relevant levels for management of woodland and mountain areas typical of the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic region. The aim, which the authors argue has been robustly reached, was to identify those aspects of forestry policy clearly perceived by citizens. This is useful for defining enlargement of areas protected under Natura 2000 Network. Results show clear preference for an increase in woodland to over half the current surface area, with replanting of traditional trees, in woodlands of low density and trees of different age and, preferably in irregular shaped plots.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Johannes Jutting
2002
Community based health insurance schemes are becoming increasingly recognized as an instrument which help farmers in rural areas of low income countries to better manage health. Health risks present a permanent threat to the income earning capacity of poor people. Beside direct economic cost for treatment and lost working time, indirect cost such as a reduction in labor supply materialize which increases the vulnerability of the household. It is often hypothesized that community based health insurance improve social protection, but quantitative analysis is largely missing. Against this background, this paper analyzes if members in a mutual health insurance scheme have a better access to health care than non-members taking “les mutuelles de santés” (mutual health organization) in rural Senegal as an example. Limited dependent and log linear regressions are used to capture the impact of health insurance on the probability of visiting a health care provider and the out-of-pocket expenditure at the point of use . The results of the analysis show that while community based health insurance schemes reach otherwise excluded people, the poorest of the poor in the communities are not covered. Regarding the impact on the access to health care, members have a higher probability of using hospitalization services compared to non-members and pay substantially less when they need care. Given the results from this study, community financing schemes have the potential to improve the risk management capacity of rural households.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Irma Bogenrieder, Bart Nooteboom
2003
This article investigates what learning groups there are in organizations, other than the familiar communities of practice. It first develops an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for identifying, categorizing and understanding learning groups. For this, it employs a constructivist, interactionist theory of knowledge and learning. It employs elements of transaction cost theory and of social theory of trust. Transaction cost economics neglects learning and trust, but elements of the theory are still useful. The framework is used in an empirical study in a consultancy company, to explore what learning groups there are, and to see if its theory can explain their functioning and their success or failure.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Eduardo Segarra, Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte, Jaime Malaga, Gary W. Williams
Durban, 2003
A non-linear optimization model which maximizes total Ecuadorian social welfare, defined as the sum of Consumers’ and producers’ surpluses for the four major crops (corn, bananas, rice and African palm) is developed to evaluate the tradeoff between welfare and environmental degradation in Ecuador. It was found that a total welfare loss of US$122 million (a 11 percent reduction - from US$ 1.112 billion to US$ 989.66 million) would be expected from a 30 percent reduction in the total pesticide load on the environment in the production of the four major crops. The distributional impacts of the welfare loss were found, however, to be significantly skewed toward the loss of consumers’ surplus. Specifically, a 30 percent reduction of total pesticide load on the environment would result in a reduction of 3.86 percent of producers’ total surplus while consumers would be expected to loose 19.46 percent of their total surplus.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Guirao Perez, Cano Fernandez, Lopez M.I. Yurda, Rodriguez Donate
2002
In this paper we measure the impact of an individual’s socioeconomic conditions on the decision to consume wine in a traditionally wine-producing area. Based on the data obtained in an exhaustive survey on wine consumption and through discrete choice models, we assess the changes which come about in the decisions to consume the different types of wine under consideration, and we obtain the most relevant distinctive and differentiated characteristics for each one of them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Stephen G. Mbogoh, Florence M. Wambugu, Sam Wakhusama
2003
This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio- economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnological applications in agriculture. Hence the article hopes to make a contribution to recent debates at international levels as to whether biotechnology can make a difference in uplifting the living standards of people in the third world (Qaim, 1999; Graff, et al 2002; Qaim, et al 2002) by showing that it actually does so, using experiences from Kenya. The study utilizes both primary and secondary data sources. The results show that tc-banana production is relatively more capital intensive than non-tc banana production (re: about 70% fixed costs for tc banana versus about 49% fixed costs for non-tc banana). However, tc-banana production is found to offer relatively much higher financial returns than non-tc banana production. The high profitability of tc-banana production relative to traditional (non-tc) banana production and other farm enterprises in the pilot tc-banana project area in Kenya demonstrates the importance of biotechnological applications in rural development and shows that biotechnology can make a difference in uplifting the living standards of people in the third world. Therefore, efforts to promote tc-banana production in Kenya are justifiable from both food security and economic criteria.
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