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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 565

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Shyamal K. Chowdhury
2003
This paper assesses the impact of access to information on farm household.s factor market participation. The paper tries to answer two questions. First, does use of telephone have any impact on farm household's factor market participation decision? Second, correcting for market participation, does use of telephone have any impact on the type of factor adjustment decision? For the first question, the paper uses a bivariate probit to correct for omitted variable bias and for the second question, the paper uses a two stage probit. Empirical findings of this paper suggest that access to information in the form of use of telephone has significant positive impact on factor market participation. The difference in market participation between telephone users and nonusers is around 14 percent. However, once a household participate in the market, the use of telephone does not have any impact on specific factor market participation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jan Christensen
2002
Agri-environmental schemes are offered by a regulator to farmers. The farmer is to produce certain environmental goods and gets a pecuniary compensation for doing so. The problem of designing optimal schemes is dealt with using mechanisms design theory. This paper considers the situation where the regulator faces a budget constraint on total payments to farmers. It is shown, that 2 results of standard mechanisms design theory are affected when a budget restriction on total payments is present.
1) The ”no distortion at the top rule“ does not always hold.
2) It is not always optimal to o.er heterogeneous farmers heterogeneous argi-environmental schemes.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
Michael Christie, John Chamard, Chad Perry, Pat Rowe
2002
There is a significant gap in the understanding of internal management operations within regional development boards. The deficiency has implications for research methods in this area. The current debate on realism in case study research has examined the selection of an appropriate research methodology. The circumstances to be researched (Eisenhardt 1989; Glasser & Strauss 1967; Yin 1989) and the theoretical paradigm adopted by the researcher (Guba & Lincoln 1994; Layder 1993; Outhwaite 1983) determine the research methodology in case study research. This paper builds on contributions to this debate by Perry, Alizadeh and Riege (1997) and Perry (1998) that describe the circumstances and paradigm that best argue for the use of case study method. Further, this paper adds to this debate and sets out an example of a case study approach for the analysis of the qualitative data to ensure methodological rigor. In turn, it outlines outlines an approach for the analysis of qualitative data through multi-level analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
Claudio Ciborra, Antonio Cordella, Miria Grisot
1999
The strategic use of knowledge and its management depend upon the relevant organizational context. The model of the learning ladder is a compact way of describing the unfolding of multiple organizational knowledge creation, transformation and transfer processes in a single firm context. Additionally, in this context the governance of the firm internal knowledge processes is performed according to the resource - based view of strategy. In this paper two different contexts challenging such model are explored in the case of a large pharmaceutical company, AstraZeneca. First, the boundaries of the single firm are crossed by looking at those advantages, which may be attained by managing the transfer and co-production of unique knowledge between a few allied firms according to the theory of relational rents. AstraZeneca formal network is discussed in the light of this model. Secondly, emerging features of how knowledge is managed among a large number of interdependent organizations and individuals are explored with reference to the case of a very peculiar R&D department at AstraZeneca: Clinical Science. While in the first case the model prove to hold, in the latter context behaviours and performances seem to contradict the principles of knowledge management inspired by the resource-based and relational views. This is puzzling: conventional strategic and knowledge management frameworks break down precisely when dealing with highly distributed, knowledge intensive businesses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
J. Stephen Clark, Kurt K. Klein, William A. Kerr
2003
A new procedure is developed to estimate innovation possibility frontiers and test for biases in technological change. Using data on four inputs (land, machinery, chemicals and labour) from central Canada (Ontario and Quebec) over the period 1926-1985, we find that the innovations possibilities frontier shifts neutrally over time. This is consistent with Ahmad.s model of induced innovations, but is not consistent with de Janvry.s application of Ahmad.s model to the historical development of Argentine agriculture. Agricultural research in Canada has been conducted with the objective of developing cost minimizing technologies. Empirical support was found for this notion in the development of the innovation possibilities frontier.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию английского экономиста Рональда Гарри Коуза по случаю получения им в 1991 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за открытие и объяснение значения стоимости сделок и права собственности для институциональной структуры и функционирования экономики. Лекция посвящена введению в институциональные принципы организации производственного процесса; она написана простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте "Премии".
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tim J. Coelli, Euan Fleming
Durban, 2003
Smallholder farming systems in Papua New Guinea are characterised by an integrated set of cash cropping and subsistence food cropping activities. In the Highlands provinces, the subsistence food crop sub-system is dominated by sweet potato production. Coffee dominates the cash cropping sub-system, but a limited number of food crops are also grown for cash sale. The dynamics between sub-systems can influence the scope for complementarity between, and technical efficiency of, their operations, especially in light of the seasonality of demand for household labour and management inputs within the farming system. A crucial element of these dynamic processes is diversification into commercial agricultural production, which can influence factor productivity and the efficiency of crop production where smallholders maintain a strong production base in subsistence foods.

Data are used on coffee and food crop production for 18 households in the Benabena district of Eastern Highlands Province to derive technical efficiency indices for each household over two years. A stochastic input distance function approach is used to establish whether diversification economies exist and whether specialisation in coffee, subsistence food or cash food production significantly influences technical efficiency on the sampled smallholdings.

Diversification economies are weakly evident between subsistence food production and both coffee and cash food production, but diseconomies of diversification are discerned between coffee and cash food production. A number of factors are tested for their effects on technical efficiency. Significant technical efficiency gains are made from diversification among broad cropping activities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Anthony P. Cohen, Katsuyoshi Fukui
Изд-во: Edinburgh University Press, 1993, 228 с.
Essays originally presented to the symposium, The Age of the City: Human Life in the Twenty- First Century, held at The International House, Osaka, Japan, 27-30 March 1990 and published with the support of the Senri Foundation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Julia Connell, John Nolan
2002
Performance appraisal and managing performance are they one and the same or fundamentally different? The first suggests a reactive stance while the second indicates proactivity. Although effective performance management has been touted as the key lever for change that may boost individual and team accomplishment in organisations, the results will be limited if it is a case of old wine in new bottles. Specifically, the preliminary results of two case studies indicate that performance management systems operate in the same way as old performance appraisals. Some interviewees perceived that knowing how to play the corporate game was as important as performing well. Those who play the game well, were perceived as advancing in the organisation, while those who performed but did not play the game were left confused about their performance, and subsequently, their future. Initial data analysis suggests that if managers want to introduce more innovative ways of managing performance, the solution could be in the level and frequency of informal feedback occurring between managers and employees.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Beatrice I. Conradie, Dana L. Hoag
Durban, 2003
In this paper the incremental values of water are calculated for irrigators in the Fish-Sundays Scheme of South Africa's Eastern Cape province. The socio-political pressure for redistribution of agricultural resources provided the imperative for this study. The model of the Fish-Sundays Scheme reflects a survey of 50 000 ha of fodder and citrus production. It explicitly models the water demand on sixteen typical farms, for five irrigation technologies, six crops and four livestock activities. The existing allocation generates an average value of R0.0423/m3/year, which increases to R0.0681/m3/year if farmer-to-farmer trading is allowed given existing infrastructure. Unrestricted trade raises the average value to R0.0719/m3/year. The marginal cost of additional water in the source basin is R0.05/m3/year for the first 315 million m3 and R1.27/m3/year to extend capacity beyond that.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Alessandro Corsi, Silvia Novelli
2002
The goal of this paper is to estimate the maximum price consumers are willing to pay (MPWTP) for organic beef meat. To this purpose, a theoretical and econometric approach is presented, based on the RUM model and on a Contingent Valuation technique.

The results show that consumers’ MPWTP is quite high, thus suggesting that organic beef meat might gain an appreciable market share. This is also an encouraging signal for prospective producers of organic meat, who might compensate the likely increase in production costs with a substantial premium for the new good.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Alessandro Corsi, Silvia Novelli
Durban, 2003
In this paper, models for estimating the maximum price consumers are willing to pay (MPWTP) for organic beef meat, and the maximum quantity-constrained price (i.e., when buying the same quantity they bought of regular meat) consumers are willing to pay (MQCP), are presented. To this purpose, the relevant theoretical and econometric approaches are presented, based on the RUM model and on a Contingent Valuation technique.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stephan Cramon-Taubadel, J. Meyer
2002
In this paper we survey the literature on asymmetric price transmission. This literature contains a substantial share of publications by agricultural economists. After classifying the different types of asymmetric price transmission in section 2, we describe the explanations for asymmetric price transmission that have been proposed in section 3. In section 4 we focus on the econometric techniques used to quantify asymmetry. Section 5 concludes with a discussion of outstanding methodological problems and suggestions for future research. Our main conclusion is that the existing literature is far from being unified or conclusive, and that a great deal of work remains to be done. A wide variety of often conflicting theories of and empirical tests for asymmetry co-exist in the literature. Furthermore, existing tests are not discerning in the sense that they as a rule to do not make it possible to choose between competing explanations for asymmetry on the basis of empirical results. Therefore, after more than three decades of work, a considerable need for further research remains, and it would appear premature to draw far reaching conclusions for theory and policy on the basis of work to date.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Timothy J. Dalton
Zaragoza, 2003
New crop varieties often have been promoted in developing countries based upon superior yield vis-a-vis locally available varieties. This research presents a hedonic model for upland rice by drawing upon the input characteristics and consumer good characteristics model literature. Model specification tests determine that a combination of production and consumption characteristics best explains the willingness to pay for new upland rice varieties. This non-separable household model specification determined that four traits explain the willingness to pay for new rice varieties: plant cycle length, plant height, grain elongation/swelling and tenderness. Yield was not a significant explanatory variable of the willingness to pay for seed. br>
The implications of this model are two-fold. First, varietal development and promotion must include post-harvest characteristics in addition to production traits when determining which varieties to promote for official release. Secondly, non- yield production characteristics such as plant height and cycle length are significant factors in producers_ assessments of the value of a new variety. Overall, this paper provides an alternative explanation for limited adoption of modern upland rice varieties in West Africa: varietal evaluation programs have focused too narrowly on yield evaluation and have not promoted varieties with superior non-yield characteristics than locally available varieties.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Sami Daniel, Maureen Kilkenny
2002
This article considers the impacts of (de)coupled farm sector support on the locations of farming and agro-industrial activity. An economic geography model is developed which has two types of regions, one with extensive agricultural production (rural), the other with intensive farming that is more densely populated (urban). The farm and agro-industrial sectors are vertically linked. A service sector that is not directly linked to either basic industry is also explicit. We show that coupled and decoupled subsidies affect the spatial distribution of farming, industry, and service sector activity. Support that is provided to all farmers regardless of crop, thus semi-decoupled, increases spatial agglomeration. Support targeted to farmers of particular crops, especially rural comparative advantage crops, favors increased farming in rural areas but spatial agglomeration of non-farm activity still occurs. This latter targeting approach is used in the European Union.
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