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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22

Авторы:
все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JK L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec
Durban, 2003
The paper attempts to quantify determinants influencing dynamics of employment decisions on agricultural households in Slovenia and to test specific aspects of labour reallocation during transition period by application of agricultural household model. Through the use of 1991 . 2000 panel data for 22,055 farm households, quantitative analysis of intertemporal employment decisions of farm holders is carried out by the use of probit techniques. Determinants tested refer to personal characteristics of reference persons (gender, age, education level, opportunity off-farm income), household characteristics (size, structure), characteristics of the agricultural holding (economic size, labour input, labour intensity) and local labour market conditions. The model results generally confirm the existing empirical evidence on asymmetrical and irreversible participation of holders at the labour market. Despite intensive restructuring of agriculture and profound changes in non-farm labour market in the analysed period, labour supply of farm holders remains rigid. Mobility of labour supply is lower than expected, which can be attributed to the importance of structural problems constraining intersectoral mobility. A marked tendency towards upkeeping of the same employment status is more distincted in the case of holders employed on the farm. A low level of labour supply mobility worsens efficiency of labour allocation on agricultural holdings in Slovenia. Elements of this problem emerge on both, supply (e.g. low level of educational and professional attainment of reference persons) and demand side of labour market (e.g. unfavourable local labour market conditions).
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec, Morten Kvistgaard, Jens P. Olsson
2004
The paper reports on the experiences gained from conducting the mid-term evaluation of SAPARD Program in Slovenia. The methodological approach lies in comparative analysis of two approaches: empirical approach, based on the application of Input-Output model and conventional approach based on application of evaluation techniques as proposed by the Guidelines prescribed by the European Commission. Limited scale of implementation has raised problems in economy-wide assessment of the impact and success of the Program. In some cases, quantitative relationships were also hard to assess due to the impact of external influences. Important limitations were found also in the case of conventional evaluation approach. The analysed case encountered some data-related problems (deficient monitoring data, almost exclusive dependence on primary data). There is also a more systemic problem of a limited contextual scope of this evaluation approach, which fails to provide sufficient information in the policy formation phase. Apart from comparison of alternative evaluation approaches, the paper also attempts to provide some wider implications for adoption of 'evaluation paradigm' in rural development policy in countries without a previous experience in this field.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
Durban, 2003
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Sinne Smed, Jorgen Dejgaard Jensen
2002
This paper examines the cross-impacts of food safety news concerning one product on the demand for another product, using the Danish demand for pasteurized eggs versus shell eggs as an illustrative case. The study identifies news with a temporary impact and news with a permanent impact on consumers’ food demand behavior. The techniques used to identify the permanent versus temporary news are recursive estimation and parameter stability. Whereas “permanent” news is identified to be represented by a specific individual event, “temporary” news concerning salmonella in eggs is aggregated into a news-index variable. Both temporary and permanent news concerning salmonella in shell eggs appear to have significant positive impacts on the demand for pasteurized eggs. The model is estimated as an Error Correction Model. Consumers are found to adjust quite rapidly to both temporary and permanent news. Both the composition of egg consumption accounted as mean budget shares varies across socio-demographic household groups as well as the impact of the considered permanent news.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Tugrul Temel, Willem Janssen, Fuad Karimov
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper develops a quantitative, graph-theoretic method for analysing systems of institutions. With an application to the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan, the method is illustrated in detail. An assessment of existing institutional linkages in the system suggests that efforts should be placed on the development of intermediary institutions to facilitate quick and effective flow of knowledge between the public and the private components of the system. Furthermore, significant accomplishments are yet to come in policy-making, research and education, and credit institutions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
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