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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 48

Авторы:
все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O PQR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
Durban, 2003
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the effects of EU dairy policy reform (Agenda 2000 and milk quota abolition with and without decoupled direct income payments) on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input- output model. It was e.g. found that decoupling of direct income payments gives an extra stimulus to milk production after milk quota abolition. However, the increase in milk production is restricted by nutrient and manure policies in the Netherlands. It is also found that, although the total effect on Dutch GDP is limited, the income effects for individual industries can be large. Moreover, economy wide effects for non- agricultural industries exceed changes for agriculture.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
2002
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the impact of milk quota abolishment on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input-output model. It was found that abolition of the milk quota system has large impacts on milk production and livestock numbers and composition. The latter is explained by the strict mineral and manure policies in the Netherlands; an increase in the numbers of dairy cows leaves less room for other livestock. It is also found that, although the total effect on gross value added in the Dutch economy is limited, the effects for individual industries can be large.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Rui Huang, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, E. Wesley Peterson
Durban, 2003
A three period overlapping generations model is developed to investigate the impact of shorter life expectancy due to disease, on human capital investment decisions and income growth. This research is particularly relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa given the dramatic reduction in life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS and the potential lasting effects on growth. Our results indicate that as life expectancy shortens so does schooling inducing a lower growth rate of income. These relationships are even more pronounced for the African continent than for the rest of the world.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Michiel Keyzer, Max Merbis, Ferdinand Pavel
2002
The paper argues that current long-term projections of global meat and feed demand may underestimate future consumption patterns for mainly two reasons. First, they do not explicitly consider increased demand for protein foods of animal origin with rising incomes in some developing contries, and second they do not allow for changes in livestock technology, in particular feed demand. We then project the impact of both mechanisms to show the empirical relevance of our comments and suggest ready-to-use tools to consider them within standard projection models.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Konstantinos C. Kostopoulos, Yiannis E. Spanos, Gregory P. Prastacos
2003
Over the last years the resource-based view (RBV) of strategic management has attracted wide academic and managerial attention. Drawing on RBV literature, this paper analyses the interrelationships between RBV and organizational innovation. The authors examine those aspects of RBV that critically determine the firms capacity to innovate by integrating the relevant theoretical and empirical evidence. A number of contributions setting the ground for future empirical research are provided.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
Juha-Antti Lamberg, Grant T. Savage, Kalle Pajunen
2002
In this study we analyze possible links between new institutional economics and stakeholder management models. The authors' preliminary findings fit with the traditional political organization argument: namely that firms organizational decision-making include explicit and implicit aspects, shaped by institutional and technical constraints, and that decisions have to be balanced from this perspective. As an illustrative empirical material the authors use failed merger and acquisition process between United Airlines and US Airways 2000 2001. The basic theorizing methods used in this paper are the alternate template strategy, and comparative analysis between the two readings (texts). The authors suggestion is that the two theoretical frameworks are complementary, and could be useful when studying / estimating the influence of inter-organizational negotiations to organizational decisionmaking, and especially strategizing.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Alfons Oude Lansink, Kyosti Pietola
2002
This paper applies a semi-parametric approach to estimating a generalised model of investments in energy installations. The model accounts for irreversibility and lumpiness of investments by linking a parametric specification of the unobservable dynamic shadow price to observed investment behaviour using a non-parametric specification of the adjustment cost function. The results suggest that marginal costs of investments in energy installations increase quickly at small investment levels, whereas the increase slows down at higher investment levels. Therefore, standard parametric adjustment cost models are likely biased such that they over-estimate small investments and under-estimate large investments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Marjorie Le Bars, Jean-Marie Attonaty, Suzanne Pinson
2002
Water sharing has become a serious problem in France. One of the objectives of 1992 and 2000 directives proposed by the European Union was to reduce both the frequency and the extent of water conflicts through the establishment of multilateral negotiations, where different public and private interests can be represented in a structured institutional environment. In France, many negotiations take place at local level between farmers, water suppliers, public services and environmentalists to allocate water resources between users. We suggest that Agent–Based Modelling (ABM) using a multi-agent approach could help negotiations between different players by showing the consequences of water allocation rules and taking in consideration the players’ respective attitudes and their ability to change their behaviour.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Riitta Maijala, Jukka Peltola
Zaragoza, 2002
When joining the EU, Finland was granted a permission to run its own food safety policy concerning Salmonella. The policy is called Finnish Salmonella Control Program (FSCP) and it covers the main animal production lines: pork, beef, poultry, and also the products thereof e.g. meat and eggs. By committing to follow an EU Commission approved national program Finland received so called additional guarantees from the EU. These guarantees allow it to require respective salmonella protection levels from similar products imported to the country. In order to continue the program its economic efficiency has to be thoroughly evaluated.

The objective of FCSP is that no more than 1 % of the animals and meat should be contaminated with Salmonella at the national level. Respectively, at the abattoir or meat cutting plant level the goal is 5 % . These quite strict objectives were reached well in 1995-2001. The industry is responsible for running the program in practice. National authorities have their emphasis in coordination, collecting of data and supervision. The costs of the program are almost fully carried by the industry. This paper evaluates the efficiency and viability of FSCP as a whole. It can be concluded, that money used running the program is well-spent: health benefits produced, estimated either using a cost-of-illness type of calculations or a willingness-to-pay measure from a consumer survey are many times larger than the costs of the program. In the end it can be concluded that FSCP is a good example of economically viable tool for sustaining public health.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Agata Nicolosi, Marco Platania
2004
In recent times the role played by women in rural development has been given an ever increasing attention, culminating in the insertion of specific measures in Agenda 2000. The EU programs for rural development aim to single out the factors handicapping the full participation of women to the public and economic life at the local level and to develop specific initiatives for this category. Aim of the present research was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the new EU policy guidelines in terms of occupation and/or additional income achieved by women in agriculture. The study analysed the main characteristics of the farm women in a local rural system in Calabria. As any rural system, the one that was considered is the result of the interlace between various governmental intervention (EU and national policies) and the physical, social and economic characteristics of a particular territory. The analysis regarded social characteristic, characteristics of the farm, organisation and management. In relation to the specific agricultural activities, they were analysed the main sociological factors affecting the motivations and the attitudes of the local farm women, the difficulties in conciliating job and family and the potential unexpressed and the ambitions unfulfilled and/or discouraged.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2003
Andreas Papandreou
Rethymnon, 2000
По мнению автора, в парадигме основного течения экономической науки не уделялось должного внимания вопросу различия между физическим и институциональным описанием экономической активности. В статье показано, как правильное разделение между физическими и институциональными рамками в экономических моделях может прояснить понятие экстерналий и предоставить основу для лучшего понимания соотношения между экстерналиями и невыпуклостью производственной функции.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Sabrina Pascotto, Giorgio De Ros
2004
Starting from the redistribution of the CAP budget and particularly with the EU regulation 1257/99 on rural development, the role of traditional farmers has been redesigned so to meet new market requirements, especially in the sense of quality of products, services, food and health security, environmental management, that means economical as well as social conditions (Shucksmith et al., 2002). For what Italian legislation concerns, recently the D.Lgs. 228/2001 defined the farmer no longer as a pure producer of agricultural foodstuffs, but as a farm-manager, more involved in all the various levels of the filière of his products. This paper focuses attention on the Province of Trento, in the Italian Alps. The starting point of this research has been the investigation of the local legislation regarding agricultural and rural matter. We identified all the typologies of interventions available for local farmers since 1994 compatible with the EU provisions and intended to promote diversification, i.e. non agricultural activities carried out by farmers beside their original or traditional farming activities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
Durban, 2003
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Guirao Perez, Cano Fernandez, Lopez M.I. Yurda, Rodriguez Donate
2002
In this paper we measure the impact of an individual’s socioeconomic conditions on the decision to consume wine in a traditionally wine-producing area. Based on the data obtained in an exhaustive survey on wine consumption and through discrete choice models, we assess the changes which come about in the decisions to consume the different types of wine under consideration, and we obtain the most relevant distinctive and differentiated characteristics for each one of them.
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