Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 80
Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008Maurizio Giuli
This paper sets out to assess the ability of Europes textile manufacturers to respond to the competitive challenge of low-cost producers from Eastern Europe and the Far East. In doing so it utilises Porters framework of the competitive advantage of nations to analyse the changing conditions under which the industry operates. The paper highlights the differing structure of the textile industry in the UK and Italy in order to demonstrate that the impact of competition may vary across the EU market as a whole. The conclusion suggests that the ability of European producers to resist the threat from low cost producers of textiles will lie in their ability to extend the strategy of developing high value added products directed towards the top-end of the market to embrace the middle range of consumers and it argues that the industrial groupings which feature collaborative but independent clusters of firms are most likely to succeed in this objective.
THE CONSISTENCY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES WITH THE POSITION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ON NTCS /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Emilio Gatto, Beatriz E. Velazquez, Roberto Henke
The set of policy tools that the EU puts under the heading of Rural Development is extremely heterogeneous, such heterogeneity translates into a different degree of coupling support with agriculture production and also brings out the need to discuss the actual consistency of such tools with the UE position on NTCs at WTO. Examined in the present work are the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) and the Regional Operative Plans (ROPs) recently approved by the European Commission for the Italian Regions. The analysis is of a purely qualitative type and is based on currently available information, that is, the measures and the relative project typologies approved within the Plans. Taking into account the EU position on NTCs and their relation with multifunctionality we look at the tools applied for Rural Development in Italy with respect to their degree of de-coupling, production of externalities/non marketable goods and consistency with the EU position on NTCs. Financial allotment by measure typology is also examined. We found out that the present set of actions that fall under rural development is still dominated by a sector-based intervention, even in the case of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment, the least contestable ones. Paradoxically, the measures aimed at the promotion of Rural Development and at training, that better respond to the NTC objectives, are those for which the least resources are located.
Buchanan J. M. The constitution of economic policy [Текст] / J. M. Buchanan // Economic sciences, 1981-1990 / ed. by K.-G. Mäler. Singapore, 1992. [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Джеймса Бьюкенена по случаю получения им в 1986 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за исследование договорных и конституциональных основ теории принятия экономических и политических решений. Лекция посвящена рассмотрению основных принципов и правил, по которым должна проводиться экономическая политика; написана она простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
The Cost of Food Self-Sufficiency and Agricultural Protection in South Korea /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Sung Joon Park
As part of its food security policy, South Korea has been pursuing food self-sufficiency using high tariffs and high administrative prices in key agricultural and food markets. Using a dual approach to trade and trade restrictiveness indices, we analyze the impact of these market distortions on welfare and trade volume. Then, we compute optimum distortions, which minimize the welfare cost of observed self-sufficiency and production objectives. We rationalize these optimum distortions to what could be claimed as legitimate protection under a “food security” (FS) box in World Trade Organization negotiations. FS-box protection is sensitive to changes in the definition and the extent of the FS objectives. We show that FS via production targets and reliance on imports would be more palatable to consumers and trade partners, while preserving rents to the farm sector.
THE COST OF MEETING EQUITY: OPPORTUNITY COST OF IRRIGATION IN THE FISH-SUNDAYS SCHEME OF SOUTH AFRICA / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003Beatrice I. Conradie, Dana L. Hoag
In this paper the incremental values of water are calculated for irrigators in the Fish-Sundays Scheme of South Africa's Eastern Cape province. The socio-political pressure for redistribution of agricultural resources provided the imperative for this study. The model of the Fish-Sundays Scheme reflects a survey of 50 000 ha of fodder and citrus production. It explicitly models the water demand on sixteen typical farms, for five irrigation technologies, six crops and four livestock activities. The existing allocation generates an average value of R0.0423/m3/year, which increases to R0.0681/m3/year if farmer-to-farmer trading is allowed given existing infrastructure. Unrestricted trade raises the average value to R0.0719/m3/year. The marginal cost of additional water in the source basin is R0.05/m3/year for the first 315 million m3 and R1.27/m3/year to extend capacity beyond that.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Frank Brueck, Astrid Kainzbauer
When European managers of differing cultural backgrounds meet, they often have considerable difficulties when it comes to understanding one another. These cultural dissimilarities have a decidedly negative influence on their ability to collaborate.. The factor Culture can be especially disturbing when the acting persons are not aware of their cultural dissimilarities. Since the differences between Europeans are not as obvious as between Japanese and German businessmen, for example, people tend to neglect the influence of Culture in business relations in Europe. One innovative way of researching cultural differences is the Cultural Standard Method. It is based on a qualitative research approach and provides a tool for identifying cultural differences on a more subtle level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural standards method as a tool for the comparison of European business cultures and to give examples of recent research results.
The dark side of coffee. Market power in the German market for roasted coffee /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Julia Koerner
Germany is the second important coffee market in the world, just overshadowed by the United States. Coffee is the most famous beverage in Germany – even more popular than beer. On the supply side dominate few roasters. Market structure influences the market outcome and explains the processors’ ability to exercise market power. This paper aims at studying the pricing behavior in the German market for roasted coffee. Respectively, it discusses the impact of three different explanations. First, market power may be due to low price elasticity related to a high level of consumption. Second, pricing behavior may be influenced by the industry concentration. And finally, pricing behavior may be change over time due to exogenous shocks. In particular, the degree of competition has changed as a consequences of a merger. Further, cyclical demand changes induce pricing behavior. Empirical results are derived using data on the aggregate market for roasted coffee in Germany during 1992:1 to 2000:12.
THE DEMAND FOR COMMODITY INSURANCE BY DEVELOPING COUNTRY AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS: THEORY AND AN APPLICATION OF COCOA IN GHANA / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Alexander Sarris
The paper considers the benefit to agricultural producers from commodity price insurance that provides in every year, but in advance of the resolution of production and price uncertainty, a minimum price for a fixed or variable portion of production. Under the assumption that producers do not change their long term production and income diversification pattern, the theoretical framework suggested leads to explicit formulas for the benefit from providing this type of insurance. The theoretical framework is implemented for Ghana, using the GLSS data to specify various classes of cocoa producing households, and monthly price data for both domestic and international prices to formulate appropriate models for ascertaining price risks faced by producers. Empirical estimates of the actuarially fair premium are given, and it is shown that they are smaller than market based put option prices from organized exchanges. The overall benefit to households, however, turns out to be substantially higher than the actuarially fair premiums, as well as the market based put option prices, due both to the magnitudes of the uncertainties facing the households, as well as their risk and consumption smoothing behavior.
THE DETERMINANTS OF CEREAL CROP DIVERSITY ON FARMS IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Samuel Benin, Melinda Smale, Berhanu Gebremedhin, John Pender, Simeon K. Ehui
On farm conservation of crop diversity entails policy challenges, especially when the diversity of crops maintained on farms has both inter-specific (among crops) and infra-specific (within a crop) components. Survey data is used to compare the determinants of inter- and infra-specific diversity on household farms in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. Physical features of the farm, and household characteristics such as livestock assets and the proportion of adults that are men, have large and significant effects on both the diversity among and within cereal crops grown, varying among crops. Demographic aspects such as age of household head and adult education levels affect only infra-specific diversity of cereals. Though there are no apparent trade-offs between policies that would enhance one type of diversity (richness) versus another (evenness), those designed to encourage infra-specific diversity in one cereal crop might have the opposite effect on another crop. Trade-offs between development and diversity in this resource-poor system are not evident. Market-related variables and population density have ambiguous effects. Education positively influences cereal crop diversity. Growing modern varieties of maize or wheat does not detract from the richness or evenness of these cereals on household farms.
THE DYNAMICS OF AGRI-FOOD TRADE PATTERNS - THE HUNGARIAN CASE / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Imre Ferto, Lionel G. Hubbard
We analyse the evolving pattern of Hungary.s agri-food trade using recently developed empirical procedures based on the classic Balassa index and its symmetric transformation. The extent of trade specialisation exhibits a declining trend; Hungary lost comparative advantage for a number of product groups over the 1990s. The indices of specialisation have also tended to converge. For particular product groups, the picture is mixed: indices are reasonably stable for product groups with comparative disadvantage, but those with weak to strong comparative advantage show significant variation. The results reinforce the finding of a general decrease in specialisation, but do not support the idea of self-reinforcing mechanisms, emphasised strongly in much of the endogenous growth and trade literature.
The Economic and Historical Foundation of the Common Agricultural Policy in Europe/доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Henrik Zobbe
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was founded in the 1950s with price support as the main policy instrument. Despite massive criticism from both within and outside the EU, price support remains the backbone of the CAP. This paper argues that the choice of price support was logical viewed in both historical and economical perspectives, and gives three reasons for this. First, even though talks on agricultural integration began immediately after the war, the CAP was a result of general economic integration in Europe rather than the reason for it. Second, the structure of the CAP was determined by the agricultural policies of the six founding countries. The third and last reason is related to the economic characteristics of running a price support system. The six countries together were net importers of agricultural products and could thereby benefit from import levies. Price support is paid for by the consumers, and European consumers had been paying high prices for food for a long time. This, together with a high level of economic growth in Europe in the 1960s, made it easier for the governments to choose this policy rather than a policy based on direct payments financed by taxpayers that would have put pressure on the national fiscal budgets of the six countries.
Schultz T. W. The economics of being poor [Текст] / T. W. Schultz // Economic sciences, 1969-1980 / ed. by A. Lindbeck. Singapore, 1992. [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-12-2003
В 1979 году американский экономист Теодор Шульц получил премию памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике новаторские исследования экономического развития в приложении к проблемам развивающихся стран. Данная публикация представляет собой его нобелевскую лекцию; в ней автор подробно останавливается на различных вариантах решения проблем бедности в современной экономике. Лекция написана простым английским языком. Она находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
THE ECONOMICS OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: A STUDY IN A COFFEE GROWING REGION OF INDIA / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
Sharpe W.F. Capital asset prices with and without negative holding [Text] / W.F. Sharpe // Economic sciences, 1981-1990 / ed. by K.-G. Mäler. Singapore, 1992. [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Гэри Стэнли Беккера по случаю получения им в 1992 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за расширение области применения микроэкономического анализа к широкому кругу проблем человеческого поведения и взаимодействия, включая поведение вне рыночной сферы. В лекции автор пытается описать жизнедеятельность индивида, используя экономические модели. Сообщение написано простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте "Премии".
Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008Geert Duysters, John Hagedoorn
This paper contributes to the understanding of the importance of dynamic firm capabilities for corporate performance in isolating the effect of core competences on the performance of companies. It discusses and tests the assumed relation between core competences and economic performance, including the effect of the external appropriation of these competences through mergers and acquisitions as well as through strategic technology alliances. A major conclusion is that, particularly in high-tech sectors, a specific set of endogenous technological core capabilities is needed to generate performance differentials. Also, the external appropriation of competences does not seem to be an easy solution through which companies can improve their existing capabilities.