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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 35

Авторы:
все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
AB C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Berit Hasler, Martin Andersen
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper addresses the combination of environmental regulation and rural development using an integrated economic modelling approach. Specifically, the regional impacts of regulating livestock density at the farm level are analysed in a projected 2010 setting. This scenario is motivated by a concern for nitrogen loads on ground and surface water. The applied model framework includes a macroeconomic CGE-model, an econometric agricultural sector model and a local economic model, and consistent links have been established between these models. The analyses show that the largest relative economic impacts occur in the western parts of Denmark. This occurs in the agricultural sector, because the highest livestock densities are found in the western regions, but also at the general economic level, because agriculture is relatively important for the regional economy in these regions. However, the maximum absolute economic impact on the regional economies in terms of regional GDP is only around one per cent in the most affected region.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Marjorie Le Bars, Jean-Marie Attonaty, Suzanne Pinson
2002
Water sharing has become a serious problem in France. One of the objectives of 1992 and 2000 directives proposed by the European Union was to reduce both the frequency and the extent of water conflicts through the establishment of multilateral negotiations, where different public and private interests can be represented in a structured institutional environment. In France, many negotiations take place at local level between farmers, water suppliers, public services and environmentalists to allocate water resources between users. We suggest that Agent–Based Modelling (ABM) using a multi-agent approach could help negotiations between different players by showing the consequences of water allocation rules and taking in consideration the players’ respective attitudes and their ability to change their behaviour.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rosanna Nistico, Giovanni Anania
Durban, 2003
Most food products can be classified as ‘credence’ goods and regulations exist to provide consumers with a substitute for the lacking information and trust. The paper presents an analysis of the decisions of producers and consumers about a ‘credence’ good in three institutional scenarios, which reflect different levels of credibility of the regulation.

The first scenario is a reference scenario in which the regulation is fully credible. In the second case considered there is no regulation, or, if there is, it is totally ineffective. In the third scenario a regulation only partially credible provides consumers with an imperfect substitute for the information and trust they lack. Some of the producers of ‘low’ quality goods share with the producers of .high. quality goods an interest in the introduction of a regulation as long as this is not fully credible. In addition, it may be the case that even producers of ’low’ quality goods who know they will not be able to sell their products labeling them as being of ‘high’ quality may have an interest in supporting a not fully credible regulation. Finally, rather than having producers of ‘low’ quality goods ‘block’ the introduction of a fully credible regulation, producers of ‘high’ quality goods are better off when a compromise is reached which leads to the approval of an imperfect regulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Pavel Vavra, Nobunori Kuga, Jesus Anton-Lopez, Joe Dewbre
Durban, 2003
Milk producers in virtually every OECD country, and in many non-OECD countries as well, benefit from government interventions. Indeed, government support and protection for milk producers is more widespread than for any of the other commodities for which the OECD calculates producer subsidy equivalents. The purpose of the analysis reported in this paper was to investigate the relative market effects of these two varieties of government intervention in milk pricing: 1) interventions through trade measures applied to dairy products and 2) discriminatory pricing arrangements. Which kind of policy creates ‘dollar-for-dollar’ the greater effects? This paper shows the answer to that question is – it depends. Neither economic theory by itself, nor economic theory combined with ‘plausible’ ranges of numerical values for key parameters is enough to say definitely one way or another. In some plausibly real-life situations domestic milk pricing arrangements can be, at the margin, more distorting than explicit trade measures. The key determining parameters include the usual suspects – the relative elasticities of fluid and manufacturing milk demand, as well as initial price gap between fluid and manufacturing milk provided by various measures and the proportion of domestic milk production used to manufacture tradable dairy products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, Harold Alderman, Luc Christiaensen
Durban, 2003
Over the past decades child stunting in Ethiopia has persisted at alarming rates. While the country experienced several droughts during this period, it also received enormous amounts of food aid, leading some to question the effectiveness of food aid in reducing child malnutrition. Using nationally representative household surveys from 1995-96 and controlling for program placement, we find that children between 6 and 24 months experienced about 0.9 cm less growth over a six-month period in communities where half the crop area was damaged compared to those without crop damage. Food aid was also found to have a substantial effect on growth of children in this age group. Moreover, on average the total amount of food aid appeared to be sufficient to protect children against plot damage, an encouraging sign that food aid can act as an effective insurance mechanism, though its cost effectiveness needs further investigation.
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