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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 67

Авторы:
все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G HI J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
David R. Harvey
Durban, 2003
Economic analysis condemns market intervention in favour of farmers as inefficient, if not also ineffective, and therefore well worth reform. Practical experience, however, indicates that such lessons are hard to learn and implement. Part of the reason appears to be that economic analysis seldom clearly identifies the real costs and benefits of reform, and seldom explains these sensibly to the relevant constituencies.

Furthermore, economic analysis rarely explains why the protectionist measures were adopted in the first place, or explores the dependencies that these policies generate. Without these explanations, and without reform strategies that take full account of them, policy reform will continue to be reluctant, slow and frequently counterproductive. This paper reconsiders the evolution of farm policies and the economic assessment of their costs and benefits, and draws conclusions as to the general shape of reforms likely to reconcile economic efficiency with political acceptability. In so doing, it re-phrases conventional economic arguments in terms which seem to accord better with sensible intuition, which may prove more accessible and credible to policy makers and advisors. It concludes with a substantial challenge to the agricultural economics profession.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Berit Hasler, Martin Andersen
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper addresses the combination of environmental regulation and rural development using an integrated economic modelling approach. Specifically, the regional impacts of regulating livestock density at the farm level are analysed in a projected 2010 setting. This scenario is motivated by a concern for nitrogen loads on ground and surface water. The applied model framework includes a macroeconomic CGE-model, an econometric agricultural sector model and a local economic model, and consistent links have been established between these models. The analyses show that the largest relative economic impacts occur in the western parts of Denmark. This occurs in the agricultural sector, because the highest livestock densities are found in the western regions, but also at the general economic level, because agriculture is relatively important for the regional economy in these regions. However, the maximum absolute economic impact on the regional economies in terms of regional GDP is only around one per cent in the most affected region.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Daniel Hassan, Michel Simioni
2002
The existence and the kind of asymmetry that characterize the relationships between shipping-point and retail prices are investigated for two major French fresh vegetables: tomatoes and chicory. Weekly data allow considering these relationships at very detailed levels such as region or supermarket chain. Moreover, the methodology proposes an implicit treatment of asymmetries in price transmission by using recently developed threshold cointegration methods. Our results do not give evidence to the widespread assertion that shipping-point price increases are completely and rapidly passed by middlemen on to consumers while there is a slower and less complete transmission of shipping-point price declines. As already emphasized in the literature, these results may be linked to the perishable nature of the two considered fresh vegetables.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tobias Hausen, Ralf Helbig, Gerhard Schiefer
2002
This article gives an overview of a conceptual framework for the designing and implementation of an electronic trade platform. The trade platform prototype is the basis of a general conception for the design and implementation of internet-based trade platforms in agribusiness. The main platform focus related to the concept are to convert traditional business relationships and transactions into an electronic system. The conceptual framework provides clarification with regard to the benefit of trade platforms and the individual requirements of different value chains and chain levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Peter B.R. Hazell
2003
Small farms still dominate the agricultural sector in much of the developing world and they are still significant players in the rural life of many rich countries. As part of the economic transformation process, rising labor costs drive most small farms out of business, and only part time farmers and a few small- specialized producers of higher value products survive. Historically this process has usually taken several generations to unfold, but the process may prove much faster in the future. New driver variables are quickening the pace, including the miniaturization of small farms under continuing rural population growth in poorer countries, the trade distorting agricultural policies of most OECD countries, a shift towards increasingly integrated and consumer driven markets as part of market liberalization and globalization, and the demographic impact of the spread of HIV/AIDS. The viability of small family farms is threatened today in all kinds of countries in historically unprecedented ways. Yet there are good reasons why policy makers should want to keep small farms around, and this will require deliberate policies to provide them viable development pathways in an increasingly hostile world. This paper reviews the problem and discusses appropriate policy interventions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thomas Heckelei, Hendrik Wolff
2002
The paper introduces a general methodological approach for the estimation of constrained optimisation models in agricultural supply analysis. It is based on optimality conditions of the desired programming model and shows a conceptual advantage compared to Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of well posed estimation problems. Moreover, it closes the empirical and methodological gap between programming models and duality based functional models with explicit allocation of fixed factors. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with a maximum entropy estimator to evaluate the functionality of the approach as well as the impact of empirically relevant prior information in small sample situations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Werner Hediger, Bernard Lehmann
2003
In this article, we investigate welfare economic aspects of multifunctional agriculture, putting emphasis on the provision of rural environmental benefits. The formal analysis shows that the efficiency prices of agricultural and forest land include important amenity and non-use values that exhibit the character of undepletable externalities. Thus, to achieve a socially optimal land allocation these externalities must be internalised. We propose the compensation to agricultural and forest managers according to the marginal external benefit of their land, and a charge-subsidy scheme to improve rural water quality. Altogether, this is consistent with the requirement of optimal land allocation and would not cause additional market distortions. Moreover, it would leave the property right on the land and landscape benefits with the farmers, and assign the right on clean air and water to the consumers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Agnar Hegrenes, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Gudbrand Lien
Durban, 2003
A model is presented to investigate the optimal economic life cycle of grass leys with winter damage problems in northern Norway and to determine the threshold of winter damage before it is profitable to reseed. A two-level hierarchic Markov process has been constructed using the MLHMP software. The model takes uncertainty concerning yield potential, damage estimation and weather dependent random fluctuations into account. A Kalman filter technique is used for updating of knowledge on yield potential and damage level.

The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Norwegian farms. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among farms, it is concluded that decision support concerning optimal economic life cycle of grass leys should be done at farm level. The results also show the importance of using a flexible dynamic replacement strategy. Use of the model for a specific farm situation is illustrated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Steven M. Helfand
Durban, 2003
This paper explores the determinants of technical efficiency, and the relationship between farm size and efficiency, in the Center-West of Brazil. This is the region where agricultural production and total factor productivity have grown the fastest since 1970. It is also a region characterized by unusually large farms. Technical efficiency is studied with Data Envelopment Analysis and county level data disaggregated by farm size and type of land tenure. The efficiency measure is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size, type of land tenure, composition of output, access to institutions, and indicators of technology and input usage. The relationship between farm size and efficiency is found to be non-linear, with productivity first falling and then rising with size. Access to institutions, credit, and modern inputs are found to be important determinants of the differences in efficiency across farms. Improved access could strengthen the efficiency advantage of small and medium farms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Magnus Hellstrom
2002
The importance of product paths on assembly lines have since long been acknowledged. What if the same idea was applied to the paths of project supplies? Could the description and perception of such journeys, reaching throughout the supply chain to the already operating outcome of the whole project, be of interest in management science? This study aims at implicating ways of facilitating and enhancing site based project management. This is not done in the same way as for an assembly line, but, instead, empirical methods brought about through participant observation will be used.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
Durban, 2003
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the effects of EU dairy policy reform (Agenda 2000 and milk quota abolition with and without decoupled direct income payments) on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input- output model. It was e.g. found that decoupling of direct income payments gives an extra stimulus to milk production after milk quota abolition. However, the increase in milk production is restricted by nutrient and manure policies in the Netherlands. It is also found that, although the total effect on Dutch GDP is limited, the income effects for individual industries can be large. Moreover, economy wide effects for non- agricultural industries exceed changes for agriculture.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
2002
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the impact of milk quota abolishment on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input-output model. It was found that abolition of the milk quota system has large impacts on milk production and livestock numbers and composition. The latter is explained by the strict mineral and manure policies in the Netherlands; an increase in the numbers of dairy cows leaves less room for other livestock. It is also found that, although the total effect on gross value added in the Dutch economy is limited, the effects for individual industries can be large.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
John Hendry, David Seidl
2002
In this paper we draw on Niklas Luhmanns social systems theory, and in particular his concept of an episode, to guide research into strategic practice and its relationship to the operating routines of an organization. Episodes, in Luhmanns theory, provide a mechanism by which a system can suspend its routine structures and so initiate a reflection on and change of these structures. Applying this theory to the organisational process of strategic change, the authors draw attention to the routine nature of strategic episodes and to their organisational role as the effective locus of strategic practice and the interaction between strategic and operating routines.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Roberto Henke, Roberta Sardone
2002
The paper focuses on the implementation of direct aids modulation, as provided for by Regulation 1259/99. After a critical review of the most relevant questions arisen around the effectiveness and the viability of modulation, the paper presents results about its possible application in Italy. In the first part of the paper a special attention is given to the actual distribution of direct aids in Italy, to the number of farms involved and the amount of revenues realised. In the second part four different hypotheses of modulation are tested. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of modulation revenues under the four different hypotheses are compared with the financial resources allotted in Italy to the regional Rural Development Plans (RDPs). While results of modulation are, generally speaking, quite poor in terms of re-distribution of direct aids, there is a more relevant effect in terms of additional resources destined to the RDPs. However, resources are to be destined to measures that receive the highest share of resources within the RDPs. On the contrary, other measures, more genuinely addressing Rural Development and territorial issues within the RDPs, receive a much smaller amount of resources and cannot be funded through modulation. In other words, if the main objective of the modulation is that of shifting resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP, this is only partially realised, given the mandatory destination of financial resources on measures that are substantially financed and that do not fully address the economic diversification and the development of rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Roberto Henke, Daniela Storti
2004
The paper deals with the financial issues of the CAP reform at the edge of the EU enlargement, looking at the new distribution of resources programmed for the “second pillar” of the CAP. More in details, the papers focuses on three aspects: the distribution of resources coming from the implementation of modulation of direct payments, with regards to both the current and the new Member States; the future financial perspectives for Rural Development Regulation (RDR) in the framework of the cohesion policies, in the light of the proposal of a “single Fund” that include both Guarantee and Guidance sections of the EAGGF; the new distribution of resources for Rural Development Plans (RDPs) as it comes out of the “Objective Criteria” coming from the European Commission. Modulation of direct payments is the current only instruments that actively shifts resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP. The proposal of a single fund would change the geography and the distribution of resources for the second pillar quite consistently. It would also affect the equity of the “objective criteria”, that would probably will be debated and eventually revised.
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