Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 39
Evaluating Household Leisure Behaviour of Rural Tourism in Japan /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Yasuo Ohe
Understanding the demand profile of rural tourism is a necessary condition for the successful diversification of any rural economy. Although descriptive analyses have been conducted on this issue, a more generalized framework is required that allows us to explore economic analyses. This paper evaluates the leisure behavior of households that have a preference for rural tourism in Japan. First, we give conceptual consideration to the notion that leisure behavior should be regarded as a form of a home production and explain that households that undertake rural tourism have undergone an upward shift in the home production function to realize a higher utility level. We propose that a preference for rural recreation causes this shift by improving the efficiency of the home production of leisure. Second, as an actual behavior of rural tourism, the characteristics of visitors to pick-your-own farms were statistically tested using data from a nation-wide survey on tourism. Finally, the rural preference function was estimated. The results revealed that the profile of households showing a preference for rural tourism demonstrated both up-market and niche market characteristics, which mirrored findings in European countries emphasizing the importance of a higher academic background, stronger orientation towards outdoor recreation, and greater discrimination with respect to the quality of services and goods received. Preference for rural recreation can be enhanced through the provision of authentic, high quality service and goods and the preservation of the rural environment. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for a farm policy that integrates both agricultural and rural measures.
Evaluation of the compensatory allowances scheme under the EU regulation 1257/99 in Austria and in other EU Member States /доклад на 87 семинаре ЕААЕ, Assessing Rural Development Policies of the CAP, Vienna, Austria, 21-23 April 2004 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005Gerhard Hovorka
The landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of less-favoured areas (LFA). These cover 81 % of the total Austrian land area. Most is classified as mountain area (70%) with a small part classified as other types of less-favoured area. Mountain farming has the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby the multifunctional landscape and the general living and working space. The mountain area still possess a high environmental quality and environmentally friendly agriculture and forestry extends over most of the mountain area. This is also important for tourism, which plays a major role in the Austrian economy. Austria has gained considerable experience with mountain farming subsidies and regional programmes specific to the mountain area over recent decades. Since the early 1970s a differentiated classification system has been the basis for defining support levels for mountain farmers. A revised classification system has been applied since 2001. The dominant objective for mountain farming policy is to maintain an agricultural and forestry sector based on environmental principles and small family farms. Under the 2000 – 2006 Rural Development Programme major alterations to the support scheme have been undertaken and support levels have been improved considerably for LFA farmers, and particularly for mountain farmers. The ex-ante evaluation and the mid-term evaluation were undertaken by the Federal Institute for Less-Favoured and Mountainous Areas in Vienna. This paper addresses key questions regarding the evaluation and the achievements of the new compensatory allowances schemes in Austria and will focus on the extent to which it meets the main objectives for mountain areas and other less favoured areas. The complementary contributions of other RDP measures, such as the agri-environmental programme to fulfil the main objectives, will also be discussed. In addition, a review of less–favoured-area payments of some other EU member states will be presented.
Evaluation Study on the Austrian Agri-Environmental Programme and its Impact on Groundwater /доклад на 87 семинаре ЕААЕ, Assessing Rural Development Policies of the CAP, Vienna, Austria, 21-23 April 2004 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005Klaus Wagner
The evaluation of the effects of different measures of the Austrian Agri-Environmental Programme (ÖPUL) on groundwater has to take into consideration various different dimensions of the analysis process. To begin with, there are EU guidelines for the evaluation that lay down questions, criteria and indicators that have to be answered. A second dimension of the evaluation process refers to the level of the different measures. Here we are dealing with single measures, bundles of measures for a specific objective and voluntary or obligatory combinations of measures. In addition, we have to consider that the measures concerning groundwater protection can have effects in a strong or weak, direct or indirect manner, in a selective or more extensive way. The time-related aspect of the effects is of enormous importance, not only in connection with the different programme variants (ÖPUL 95, ÖPUL 98 and ÖPUL 2000) but also in connection with the short-term or long-term effects of measures, depending also on local and regional characteristics. Of great importance is the spatial component in the analyses. In Austria, we have pore-groundwater regions where programmes for measuring the groundwater quality have been installed for many years. Of equal interest is the development of the groundwater quality in ÖPUL testing areas because there is detailed information available about the agricultural structures and the acceptance of ÖPUL measures. Finally, we have to observe the particular groundwater measure project regions, where a variety of special groundwater measures is available to farmers. These different types of regions frequently overlap each other but not always. Accordingly, the evaluation process is a multidimensional task that has to describe the relevance and the acceptance of the measures along with their potential and actual effects.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Dee Brereton, Oswald Jones
The topic of entrepreneurship has been the subject of a considerable amount of academic interest over the last twenty years. Despite a vast amount of published work there have been very few attempts to study the entrepreneurial process. In other words, we know little of the what happens as an entrepreneur moves from idea to the objective reality of a fully functioning business. A more recent phenomenon has been the shift from a focus on entrepreneurial traits to the study of entrepreneurial networks. This is recognition that even the most individualistic of entrepreneurs rely heavily on their social relationships during the creation of a new business. These two factors, networks and the entrepreneurial process, are brought together in this paper which utilises a first-hand account of activities associated with business startups. The paper also examines the way in which MBA education provides useful skills to even the most experienced entrepreneur.
Explaining structural policy use by farmers with discrete choice models: an evaluation of structural policies supported by the EAGGF /доклад на 87 семинаре ЕААЕ, Assessing Rural Development Policies of the CAP, Vienna, Austria, 21-23 April 2004 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005Riccardo Scarpa, Laura Viganò, Davide Bortolozzo
A farmer’s choice to part-take into an on farm investment programme can be modelled as a discrete choice. The idea of this paper is to test the possibility of using discrete choice models in the field of the evaluation of structural policies. Farmers choose to take part into agricultural programmes according to their preferences, their structural type and their economic environment. Adhesion to a voluntary scheme or policy can be cast as a discrete choice problem. Hence, discrete choice models are adequate to describe probability of choice, especially against a framework of utility maximization. First, we want to explore if the choice of investing in schemes supported by EAGGF depends on farms’ characteristics, such as Used Agricultural Area, Standard Gross Margin, Farm type, Possession of lands, Form of Farm Management, Standard Work Unit, class of European Size Unit, Fixed costs, etc.. We use is the binomial logit model to explain the probability of making an on-farm investment with regard to Italian Central and Northern Regions. The estimation of such a model allows us to identify the determinants of such a decision. We also use discrete choice analysis to identify the significant determinants of the probability of selection of on-farm investment across 12 investment categories within the Regulation (EC) No 950/97. These include – amongst others – land purchase, system for refusal treatment, land improvement, agricultural machinery, agricultural and non-agricultural farm buildings, land improvements, permanent cultivations etc. We find such an approach to be insightful on the basis of data from the Italian RICA business farm survey, and hence propose to develop it further.
EXPLAINING THE FAILURE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003Guy Blaise Nkamleu, Jim Gokowski, Harounan Kazianga
This paper examines changes in agricultural productivity in 10 Sub-saharan countries. The relative performance of agricultural sector was gauged using data envelopment analysis. From a panel data set of the 10 countries which included the 28-year period 1972-1999, mathematical programming methods were used to measure Malmquist indexes of total factor productivity. It was found that, during that period, total factor productivity have experienced a negative evolution in sample countries. A decomposition of those measures suggest that, most of the weak performance of factors productivity is attributable more to technological change than technical efficiency change. French-speaking countries better succeeded to raise their productivity than English-speaking countries do. In addition, it have been found that Sahelian countries failed to rise their agricultural productivity compared to forest countries where a positive evolution have been detected.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003Carmen Cabello Medina, Antonio Carmona Lavado, Ramуn Valle Cabrera
In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study about specific organizative characteristics that innovative companies possess. This study is part of a wider research work about the innovative behavior of firms (Camelo et al, 2001). The case study about four organizations included in the Andalusian Innovations Network reveals that certain factors do exist which behave as the literature supposes they should, along with other factors which are also worthy of consideration given that they contribute to improving our understanding of innovation within a company.
Export performance and innovation activities in the agrifood industry: a recursive estimation approach /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003A. Gracia, Mehrez Ameur
Agrifood firms operate in a more global, saturated and competitive market than other manufacturing firms, and they have smaller size. These firms certainly need to define appropriate strategies related to accessing the international market and to investing in innovative activities. This two decisions are related to firms size because as Krugman states international trade is not only explained by differences in technology between countries but also by firms’ desire to extend their sales in foreign markets to take advantage of the economies of scales. Therefore, it seems to exist a simultaneous relation between firm size, exports and innovative activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse agrifood firms’ decisions on these three strategies: export behaviour, innovative activities and firm’s size in comparison to other manufacturing firms using some modification from the simultaneous model defined by Entorf and Pohlmeier. The study is focused on the Spanish manufactured firms taking special attention to the agri-food ones. Data come from a National Survey (“Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales”) carried out by the “Fundación Empresa Pública”) from 1990. Results indicate that agri-food manufacturing firms decision process related to their size, export share and innovative activities is not a simultaneous process. Moreover, some differences with the rest of manufactured firms have been detected, In particular, agri-food firms have lower export shares, lower size and lower innovation intensity than Spanish firms in other manufacturing sectors. Spanish firms decision process on strategic variables (size, export share and innovation) is characterized by a recursive decision process where firms firstly decide export intensity, secondly, they decide their size or total sales depending on the previous decision and, finally, they decide their innovative intensity depending on the last two.
Externality, Convexity and Institutions/ Доклад на конференции EAERE 2000 Annual Conference, University of Crete, Department of Economics, Rethymnon, Greece, 30 June - 2 July 2000 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2003Andreas Papandreou
По мнению автора, в парадигме основного течения экономической науки не уделялось должного внимания вопросу различия между физическим и институциональным описанием экономической активности. В статье показано, как правильное разделение между физическими и институциональными рамками в экономических моделях может прояснить понятие экстерналий и предоставить основу для лучшего понимания соотношения между экстерналиями и невыпуклостью производственной функции.