Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 39
Tobin J. Money and finance in the macro-economic process [Текст] / J. Tobin // Economic sciences, 1981-1990 / ed. by K.-G. Mäler. Singapore, 1992. [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-12-2003
В 1981 году американский экономист Джеймс Тобин получил премию памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за анализ финансовых рынков и их связь с потреблением, занятостью, выпуском и уровнем цен. Данная публикация представляет собой его нобелевскую лекцию. В ней автор попытался оценить влияние таких финансовых показателей (денежная масса и ряд других) на процессы, происходящие в макроэкономике страны. Лекция написана простым английским языком. Она находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Thomas Mannarelli
Archival interviews with 76 popular musicians were content-analyzed for statements about motivation, individuation and attributions of success and failure. Creativity was judged separately by consensual ratings from experts. Results show that although no differences were found in expressions of intrinsic motivation, creative musicians were less motivated to receive extrinsic rewards than uncreative musicians. Creative musicians were also more likely to individuate their products from the products of their peers, but were no more likely to personally individuate themselves. Finally, creative musicians were more likely to display positive illusion tendencies, attributing successes internally and failures to external causes.
MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS OF FACTORS USE LEVEL: THE CASE OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
Multifunctional agriculture: A framework and policy design /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Jussi Lankoski, Markku Ollikainen
We study the multifunctional character of agriculture in a model of endogenous input use and land allocation augmented by biodiversity, landscape amenity, and nutrient runoff. While biodiversity and landscape amenities represent the public good aspects of agriculture, nutrient runoff represents its negative externalities. We show that the private use of fertilizer input is higher and the size of buffer strips lower than the socially optimal solution requires. Also the socially optimal land allocation differs from the private solution due to the valuation of landscape diversity and runoff damages. The optimal policy is to use a differentiated fertilizer tax and a differentiated buffer strip subsidy and to determine their levels by the equality between the net value of their marginal product in food production and their effects on the marginal valuation of diversity and runoff damage in each parcel. We characterize empirically socially optimal multifunctional agriculture and the optimal design of the policy instruments by using Finnish data.
MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE AND THE PRESERVATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Werner Hediger, Bernard Lehmann
In this article, we investigate welfare economic aspects of multifunctional agriculture, putting emphasis on the provision of rural environmental benefits. The formal analysis shows that the efficiency prices of agricultural and forest land include important amenity and non-use values that exhibit the character of undepletable externalities. Thus, to achieve a socially optimal land allocation these externalities must be internalised. We propose the compensation to agricultural and forest managers according to the marginal external benefit of their land, and a charge-subsidy scheme to improve rural water quality. Altogether, this is consistent with the requirement of optimal land allocation and would not cause additional market distortions. Moreover, it would leave the property right on the land and landscape benefits with the farmers, and assign the right on clean air and water to the consumers.
MULTIFUNCTIONALITY AND NON-AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OF PUBLIC GOODS / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Tristan Le Cotty, Tancrede Voituriez
When public goods are joint outputs of agricultural production, there is a trade-off between agricultural and non-agricultural provision of the public good. The principle of minimal price distortion in the reform of agricultural policies has led to a theoretical recommendation that public goods, if under-provided at agricultural free market level, should be promoted through non agricultural policies instead of agricultural policies. We show that the economies of scope between the agricultural production and the joint public good play a key role in determining the optimal way of providing this latter. If the policy designed is a non- agricultural policy, the production cost of the public good is higher than with an agricultural policy. If the policy designed is an agricultural policy, the production cost is lower but generates market effects. Under the assumption of strictly positive economies of scope, we show that the optimal policy is a mix of agricultural and non-agricultural policy. We confirm this result in the two-country case, demonstrating the optimal level of agricultural support for public good provision is strictly positive and lower than in the case of one country.
Multifunctionality and the European Common Agricultural Policy: A Theoretical Problem /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Karsten Kyed, Niels Kaergard, Henrik Zobbe
The multifunctional character of agriculture is used as a main argument for agricultural support. This argument is theoretical analyzed in a model with decreasing marginal utility and it is shown that such a support must depend on the size of the agricultural sector. Consequently the argument is not valid for a common policy for very different countries as the EU-countries.
Multifunctionality: Concepts and Applications to the WTO Negotiations on Agriculture /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003Maury E. Bredahl, Sjur Spildo Prestegard, Nils Kristian Nersten
The ongoing negotiations in the WTO will most certainly lead to a further liberalization of the global agricultural trade. Related to this, many national governments, including Norway, Switzerland and Japan have placed substantial emphasis on the so-called non-trade concerns. In addition to the production of food and fiber, agriculture also provides or may provide national food security, environmental benefits, and viable rural areas. The term “Multifunctional Agriculture” has been applied to describe these additional functions. In this paper, we will show how the economic concepts of “positive and negative externalities” and “public goods” can be used to analyse non-trade concerns and multifunctionality, especially with reference to agriculture’s impact on the environment. We conclude the paper with suggestions for international trade rules that can allow countries to meet domestic environmental policy objectives in a minimally trade-distorting manner.
Selten R. Multistage game models and delay supergames / R. Selten // Economic sciences, 1991-1995 / Ed. by T. Persson. Singapore, 1997. [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 18-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Райнхарда Зелтена по случаю получения им в 1994 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за приоритетный вклад в анализ некооперативных игр. Лекция посвящена разбору некоторых моделей и видов игр, она написана простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте "Премии".