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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 58

Авторы:
все А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F GH I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
A. Gracia, Mehrez Ameur
2002
Agrifood firms operate in a more global, saturated and competitive market than other manufacturing firms, and they have smaller size. These firms certainly need to define appropriate strategies related to accessing the international market and to investing in innovative activities. This two decisions are related to firms size because as Krugman states international trade is not only explained by differences in technology between countries but also by firms’ desire to extend their sales in foreign markets to take advantage of the economies of scales. Therefore, it seems to exist a simultaneous relation between firm size, exports and innovative activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse agrifood firms’ decisions on these three strategies: export behaviour, innovative activities and firm’s size in comparison to other manufacturing firms using some modification from the simultaneous model defined by Entorf and Pohlmeier. The study is focused on the Spanish manufactured firms taking special attention to the agri-food ones. Data come from a National Survey (“Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales”) carried out by the “Fundación Empresa Pública”) from 1990. Results indicate that agri-food manufacturing firms decision process related to their size, export share and innovative activities is not a simultaneous process. Moreover, some differences with the rest of manufactured firms have been detected, In particular, agri-food firms have lower export shares, lower size and lower innovation intensity than Spanish firms in other manufacturing sectors. Spanish firms decision process on strategic variables (size, export share and innovation) is characterized by a recursive decision process where firms firstly decide export intensity, secondly, they decide their size or total sales depending on the previous decision and, finally, they decide their innovative intensity depending on the last two.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Anna Grandori
2002
The paper outlines a new pluralistic method for analyzing, assessing and improving corporate governance structures in their traits relevant both for financial and for human capital providers. The framework seeks to enlarge the rather universalistic approach to governance structures ranking used in the economic (principal-agent) approach, introducing sensitiveness to some relevant contingencies. Among the contingencies, task complexity and innovativeness is supposed to matter, as well as the configuration of motivations and preferences of capital providers which are supposed not to be uniform but to be predictable in their main configurations. The framewok is design-oriented and aimed at improving corporate governance configurations in a generative way, based on the discovery of superior matches between the preferences of different cathegories of capital providers over governance mechanisms (rather than focused, as usual, on the comparative assessment of discrete realized models). The approach is relational in two ways: it builds governance structures on pairwise analyses of effective matches among preference configurations; it builds governance structures as nexuses of complementary governance mechanisms (effective matches among mechanisms).
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
G.R. Griffith, R.J. Farquharson, S.A. Barwick, R.G. Banks, W.E. Holmes
2003
This study aimed at estimating the costs and benefits of all beef cattle genetic improvement activity, across Australia, over the period 1970 to the present. The total cumulative Present Value (PV) of investments by industry, government and other agencies into selection, crossbreeding and grading up since 1963, and of imported genetics, was estimated to be $340m (in $2001 at a 7% discount rate). Using a suite of genetic evaluation models, farming systems models and an industry-level model, the cumulative PV of industry returns were estimated. Within-breed selection generated $944m; crossbreeding in southern Australia $255m; changing breed composition in southern Australia $62m; and changing breed composition in northern Australia $8.1bn. The benefit/cost ratio for this investment was 28:1 over the last 30 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Jan Grund, Bjorn Hennestad, Jon-Arild Johannesen, Agneta Karlsson, Johan Olaisen
2003
The objective of this paper is to contribute to a perspective on economic performance; i.e. the interaction between norms specific to a company, the knowledge basis of the company and innovation. The main questions in this article are: What is the connection between norms specific to the company, the knowledge basis of the company and innovation? The main thesis in the article is that a companys capabilities are primarily developed on the basis of social norms and values already existing in the social relations of the company. This in turn influences how the company develops and applies the knowledge basis, thus influencing innovation strategies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Zerihun Gudeta Alemu, Klooper Oosthuizen, Herman D. van Schalkwyk
2003
In Ethiopia, growth in cereal production is accompanied by a more than proportionate increase in the standard deviation of production. This study applies descriptive and variance decomposition procedures to determine the sources of increased instability in cereal production in order to show whether they are caused by policy changes. It was found that production instability was caused more by increased yield instability. Considering the fact that use of high-powered inputs is limited to a small number of farmers, production is at subsistence level and that farmers. responsiveness to policy changes is constrained by infrastructural and institutional constraints and by the existing land policy, instability in yield is predominantly attributed to weather variability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Giovanni Gulisano, Marco Platania
2002
The strategies for exploiting typical production represents a theme of great interest, above all in the measure in which exploitation brought about via adequate marketing strategies allows these products to shed their anonymity. This paper constitutes a contribution in this direction, since it analyses the potential of a traditional product ('Nduja) using multivariate analysis techniques on a sample of consumers, identified by a specific market research survey. This made it possible to define the main characteristics of the type of consumer of this product and to define suitable market segmentation strategies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Sevtap Guler Gumus, Emin Isikli
2004
This paper is aiming at an analysis of Rural Development Programs (RDP) in Turkey with special reference to EU Rural Development Policies, Programs and implementations. Concerning to Turkish Programs, it has been reported that over the last 30 years and more particularly during the planned Development Period, special efforts have been made to gain Rural development experience in Turkey. In each five year Development Planning period (DPP), particular goals and instruments of policy for both agricultural development and that of rural areas have been specified and determined. Integrated Rural development Projects and some other typical Rural Development Projects have also been implemented in line with the targets given in each planning period.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Michele Gutierrez, Luciano Gutierrez
2002
This paper analyses, within the new growth theory framework and using panel cointegration techniques, the effect of agricultural international technological spillovers on total factor productivity growth for a sample of 47 countries during the period 1970-1992. The analysis shows that total factor productivity is strongly influenced by domestic as well as foreign public R&D spending in agricultural sector and geographical factors matters. Countries located in temperate zones benefit more than countries located in tropical zones from technological spillovers. Finally, the analysis shows that the rate of return to agricultural R&D spending is higher in tropical countries and this could justify new support and an even greater investment of funds for agricultural R&D for these countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stavroula Malla, Richard Gray
2002
We model today’s privatized crop research industry as a small number of firms, developing and selling differentiated products to heterogeneous producers. Crop variety research is modeled as a search process, which allows us to differentiate between applied and basic research and recognize research as a stochastic process. We use the framework to develop a number of propositions regarding private research incentives, the spillovers of knowledge, and the impact of public policy. The results suggest an underinvestment in research even when property rights have been established.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Albino Prada, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Maria Xose Vazquez, Mario Solino
2002
This article presents results from an experiment into attribute perception and relevant levels for management of woodland and mountain areas typical of the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic region. The aim, which the authors argue has been robustly reached, was to identify those aspects of forestry policy clearly perceived by citizens. This is useful for defining enlargement of areas protected under Natura 2000 Network. Results show clear preference for an increase in woodland to over half the current surface area, with replanting of traditional trees, in woodlands of low density and trees of different age and, preferably in irregular shaped plots.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
John Sumelius, Zoran Grgic, Milan Mesic, Ramona Franic
Durban, 2003
The aim of this paper is to identify optional ways of preventing NO3-levels from rising within Croatian farming systems, and the implications from the viewpoint of the manager. More specifically, the purpose is to

1) Determine whether Croatian farmers exceed profit maximising levels of N-fertiliser use in maize cultivation, and its possible influence on NO3-N-levels.

2) To estimate the marginal abatement cost (MAC), at the farm level, of reducing NO3-N leaching through the following instruments: a tax on optimal N-doses, a product tax and an N-fertiliser quota and a requirement for all instruments to correspond to the same abatement level.

Based on N-response experiment from feld trial for maize N-response curves were estimated. A sample of 20 family farms was used for calculating intensity, nutrient content in manure, and the prices paid for N and obtained for maize. Profit maximising doses from the field trials were compared with the use of nutrients on farms. An effluent production function was estimated based on experiments with NO3-N contents in lysimeter water for the same treatment levels as those in the N-response experiments. The results indicate that farmers use higher than optimal levels of N-fertilisers, if the manure is fully accounted for. In this case the estimated NO3-N/l level in groundwater is 162-192 % higher than the critical level stipulated by the Nitrate Directive. Neglecting the N-content in manure shows close to profit maximising nutrient levels . At this fertlising level the estimated NO3/l is approximately 62 mg NO3/l or clearly higher that the critical level stipulated by the nitrate directive (50 mg NO3/l). Through any of the three instruments a 76% NO3-leaching reduction could be obtained. It was concluded, however, that the quota has the lowest MAC (0.92 euro/mg NO3/l), followed by the N-fertiliser tax (3.65 euro/mg NO3/l), and the product tax comes in third place (9.32 euro/mg NO3/l). Management practices that may increase yield levels, and correspondingly NO3-leaching in the short and long run, were also identified. One way to achieve a quick improvement might be a system of cross compliance, stipulating a code of good agricultural practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
E.Grifell Tatje, Pilar Marques Gou
2002
This paper proposes the assessment of sustained superior performance by means of two measures called Static Performance and Dynamic Performance. The first evaluates the attained superior performance, and the second gauges its sustainability over time. This proposal builds primarily on the fact that, under the strategic management perspective, a firm's prevalent objective is the pursuit of sustained superior performance. Three basic conceptual dimensions stem from this objective: relativity, sign dependence, and dynamism. They serve as the foundation to the two performance measures presented. In contrast to the measures and methods in extant literature, our proposal provides: (i) a dynamic approach by considering the progress or regress in performance over time; and (ii) a cardinal measurement of performance differences and its changes over time. The paper also develops an axiomatic framework that any measure of strategic performance should comply to be theoretically and managerially sound. Finally, an empirical application to the Spanish banking sector during 1987-1999 is used to illustrate the measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
2002
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.
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