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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 565

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е ЖЗ И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ НО П Р С Т У ФХЦ Ч ШЩЭ ЮЯ
1 A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Zohra Bouamra-Mechemache, Jean-Paul Chavas, Tom Cox, Vincent Requillart
2002
In a period of market liberalization and multilateral trade negotiations, price discrimination for commodities with distinct markets provides additional policy options to support farm income. While both the USA and Canada have implemented price discrimination policies in their domestic dairy sector, so far the European Union (EU) has not. This paper evaluates the options of developing a price discrimination policy in the EU dairy sector. The analysis is based on an interregional model of the EU dairy sector, involving milk production, dairy processing, and consumption of ten dairy commodities in nine regions.

The paper shows that a price discrimination policy that increases prices for commodities with more inelastic demand (fluid milk, soft dairy products) would generate income that can be redistributed to dairy farmers. The results suggest that, while such a price discrimination policy can be a WTO compatible way to support dairy farm income, the efficiency of the associated income transfers declines in the presence of significant supply response.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2003
Duncan Boughton, David L. Tschirley, Higino Marrule, Ballard Zulu
2003
Cotton is one of the most important smallholder cash crops in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). How to ensure input supply, credit recovery and competition is a subject of intense policy debate. This paper examines the performance of cotton sector development policies in Mozambique and Zambia. Both countries face the challenge of organizing input supply to farmers in the absence of rural credit markets, and competing in international markets distorted by production subsidies in developed countries. Both countries privatized cotton ginning in the 1990s. Emerging from civil war, Mozambique established geographical monopolies to interlink input and output markets and facilitate credit recovery. In Zambia, the government completely liberalized the cotton sector, forcing the private sector to deal with the problem of input distribution and credit recovery by itself. Despite being landlocked, Zambia.s cotton sector has achieved better performance in terms of both value of cotton output per hectare and smallholder share of world market prices. An analysis of the institutional and technical factors behind the two countries. performance provides insights to guide the design of public/private partnerships relevant to many SSA countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
Tony Bovaird
2002
This paper looks at ways in which a framework for strategy evaluation can be constructed which is consistent with the adaptive and interpretive schools of strategic management. It suggests that some of the key instruments in the rational planning toolkit can be reinterpreted as methods for managing power and uncertainty in a multi-stakeholder environment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Cristina Brasili
2003
In the course of the past decades major transformations in the Italian food industry induced considerable structural changes: on one hand, the creation of large industrial groups, with substantial input of foreign capital and, on the other, the concentration and geographic specialisation of numerous small and medium enterprises, with the formation of specific and typical agri-food local system(districts).To take account of the presence of food districts the analysis of the Italian food industry could not be conducted at national and regional level but it has to be studied at province and local level. It is also useful to analyse the food industry with reference to the different sub-sectors.

We will conduct an in-depth analysis of the local systems(districts) of two sectors meat and fruit and vegetables processing. We will use balance-sheet data of the processing firms that were active in the meat (446 firms) and fruit and vegetables (227 firms) sub-sector in the years from 1996 to 1999. The analysis will consider the most significant balance sheet ratios, such as returns, productivity and labour cost in these local systems. Then, we will consider the economic assessment of the firms belonging to local systems of the two sectors and compare with the non district firms .For the efficiency analysis will estimate a stochastic frontier production function in order to determine the ‘district effect’. This analysis will also be directly correlated with investment in technological innovation. The economic and efficiency analysis confirms for many aspects the presence of a ‘district effect’ in the Italian food industry.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Cristina Brasili, Roberto Fanfani
2002
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the structural changes in European Agri-food systems in the last 30 years in order to verify the presence of a convergence process towards a more homogeneous structure among EU countries. This analysis considers the relative importance of the main components of Agri-food systems (agriculture, food industry and food consumption) and how they change over time. The analysis of convergence utilise the European National Accounting Data (from the SEC2 Data Base of Eurostat) from 1970 to 2000 for twelve EU countries. We use tests of convergence on cross section data by countries, but also stochastic kernel methodologies to verify the dynamic evolution of groups of countries inside the EU. The results show there are important process of convergence among countries for the variables of the Agri-food system that are more linked to the economic development, such as the importance of agriculture and food consumption in GDP. On the other hand there are divergences on the variables more linked to the openness degree and to the competitiveness of the Agri-food system. The presence of polarisation process among groups of countries contribute to permanence of long run structural changes among Northern and Southern countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maury E. Bredahl, Sjur Spildo Prestegard, Nils Kristian Nersten
2002
The ongoing negotiations in the WTO will most certainly lead to a further liberalization of the global agricultural trade. Related to this, many national governments, including Norway, Switzerland and Japan have placed substantial emphasis on the so-called non-trade concerns. In addition to the production of food and fiber, agriculture also provides or may provide national food security, environmental benefits, and viable rural areas. The term “Multifunctional Agriculture” has been applied to describe these additional functions. In this paper, we will show how the economic concepts of “positive and negative externalities” and “public goods” can be used to analyse non-trade concerns and multifunctionality, especially with reference to agriculture’s impact on the environment. We conclude the paper with suggestions for international trade rules that can allow countries to meet domestic environmental policy objectives in a minimally trade-distorting manner.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Dee Brereton, Oswald Jones
2002
The topic of entrepreneurship has been the subject of a considerable amount of academic interest over the last twenty years. Despite a vast amount of published work there have been very few attempts to study the entrepreneurial process. In other words, we know little of the what happens as an entrepreneur moves from idea to the objective reality of a fully functioning business. A more recent phenomenon has been the shift from a focus on entrepreneurial traits to the study of entrepreneurial networks. This is recognition that even the most individualistic of entrepreneurs rely heavily on their social relationships during the creation of a new business. These two factors, networks and the entrepreneurial process, are brought together in this paper which utilises a first-hand account of activities associated with business startups. The paper also examines the way in which MBA education provides useful skills to even the most experienced entrepreneur.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
Mike Bresnen, Linda Edelman, Jacky Swan, Stephane Laurent, Harry Scarbrough, Sue Newell
2002
Capturing and diffusing the knowledge generated on projects is highly problematic due to the idiosyncratic, complex and dynamic nature of projects. In particular, the recurrent re-organisation required by projects especially the constant re-formation of project teams militates against the systematic codification of knowledge or its embodiment in the knowledge base of project teams. This paper reports on on-going research in the UK that is designed to explore organisational and other factors inhibiting and enabling project-based learning. This research compares and contrasts project-based learning across a range of industrial sectors (including medical technology, telecommunications, health and public services). It emphasises the inherently social nature of project-based learning and the difficulties this creates for attempts to capture and codify project-based learning.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Martina Brockmeier, Claudia A. Herok, Oliver von Ledebur, Petra Salamon
Durban, 2003
Enlarging the EU presents a tremendous effort with obstacles for old and new member states especially in the agricultural sector. In this paper, impacts of a new accession round were analyzed with the help of the comparative-static general equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project). The standard version was extended to allow for a better representation of specific instruments of the Common Agriculture Policy and the EU budget.

To capture detailed effects in new member states, simulations were carried out for 12 candidate countries, the EU-15 and the rest of the world. As for products the focus lies on agriculture. Scenarios include an enlargement with and without the transfer of direct payments in the new member states, according to the proposal of the EU commission from January 2002. Simulations in a post-Agenda 2000 environment led to heterogeneous country specific impacts in the accession countries whereas the changes within EU-15 and the rest of the world were negligible. Due to adjustments in tariffs, trade balances of the new member states were deteriorating while welfare effects are positive. Transfer of direct payments led to more pronounced effects, especially with regard to output and trade. Without direct payments accession countries would be net contributors to the EU budget. This would change when they become eligible for this subsidy. In general, the analysis shows the importance of a country specific perspective.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Marie-Joelle Browaeys, Saskia J.M. Harkema
2001
In this paper the authors bring forward a new way of thinking about innovation and the relation between innovation, culture and management. As opposed to what the authors label traditional ways of thinking about organisations and innovation, which are mainly based on Newtonian equilibrium theory and scientific principles of management developed by Taylor (1911), the authors regard innovation as a complex process. This means that, metaphorically speaking we view innovation as a complex adaptive system (CAS). According to Holland (1995) complex adaptive systems exhibit emergence and selfregulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Frank Brueck, Astrid Kainzbauer
2002
When European managers of differing cultural backgrounds meet, they often have considerable difficulties when it comes to understanding one another. These cultural dissimilarities have a decidedly negative influence on their ability to collaborate.. The factor Culture can be especially disturbing when the acting persons are not aware of their cultural dissimilarities. Since the differences between Europeans are not as obvious as between Japanese and German businessmen, for example, people tend to neglect the influence of Culture in business relations in Europe. One innovative way of researching cultural differences is the Cultural Standard Method. It is based on a qualitative research approach and provides a tool for identifying cultural differences on a more subtle level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural standards method as a tool for the comparison of European business cultures and to give examples of recent research results.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2002
Agricultural policy reform has been an important source of change in the Chinese agricultural sector. The reforms led to productivity growth and helped China in pursuing its self-sufficiency goal especially in the grain sector. To analyse whether observable productivity growth stems from technologically induced components, or from the market induced parts, a multi-input-multi-output model is derived using an econometric distance function framework. A decomposition allows to distinguish allocative effects, scale effects, technological change, and technical efficiency change. Data on farms in Zhejiang from 1986 to 1999 are used to analyse the impact of policy reform.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2003
The study is devoted to the measurement of productivity and efficiency change in Chinese farming sector over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Within an output distance function framework, an index of total factor productivity is decomposed into technical and allocative efficiency, technical change, and scale effects. We estimate a parametric output distance function using individual farm household data from the province Zhejiang over the period 1986-2000. Results indicate that during the more market-oriented reform period in the mid 1980s productivity and technical efficiency increased while allocative efficiency remain constant. However, productivity growth and technical efficiency slow in the mid 1990s when market orientation of the reforms was reduced and self-sufficiency as a major goal reappeared on the political agenda.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Ben Bryant
2003
This paper is an exploration of how sensemaking patterns amongst management groups influence the actual practices of strategising over extended periods of time. Using an eight-year longitudinal case study of a single strategic issue, (a strategic marketing innovation in a division of a global financial services company), the paper aims to advance the work of Gioia and Chittipeddi (1991) by exploring the micro-processes of sensegiving and other sensemaking patterns amongst management groups. In the first order analysis, four different patterns of sensemaking are identified: sensegiving, fragmented sensemaking, polarised sensegiving and communal sensemaking. In the second order analysis the paper explores deeper explanations for each of the patterns of the sensemaking processes by examining contextual variables and triggers for each sensemaking pattern. Finally, a phased model is presented for discussion which links the four sensemaking patterns together over time and in so doing, identifies a number of theoretical issues in the strategising process such as the dynamic patterns of actions and interactions between senior and middle managers, the integration of micro-politics and sensegiving patterns, the study of social action in sensemaking beyond strategic conversations and communications, and the dynamic nature of consensus and diversity.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Pawel Bryla
2004
The paper aims to improve our knowledge about the response of farmers to a new instrument of the rural development policy in the Lodz region in Poland. It seeks to explore the characteristic features of the agricultural holdings and their owners applying for public financial support in the framework of an EU pre-accession fund. The analysis might be useful from the point of view of evaluating the Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD).
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