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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 24

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C DE F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John C. Beghin, Jean-Christophe Bureau, Sophie Drogue
Durban, 2003
We introduce an easily implemented and flexible calibration technique for partial demand systems, combining recent developments in incomplete demand systems and a set of restrictions conditioned on the available elasticity-estimates. The technique accommodates various degrees of knowledge on cross-price elasticities, satisfies curvature restrictions, and allows the recovery of an exact welfare measure for policy analysis. The technique is illustrated with a partial demand system for food consumption in Korea for different states of knowledge on cross-price effects. The consumer welfare impact of food and agricultural trade liberalization is measured.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Stefan Bojnec, Liesbeth Dries, Johan Swinnen
Durban, 2003
This paper analyses the determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities.

There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Hannah Chaplin, Sophia Moissey Davidova, Matthew Gorton
Durban, 2003
Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation is investigated. The results indicate that the level of diversification is relatively small and enterprise diversification by farmers is unlikely to generate sufficient new jobs and solve the problem of high rural unemployment. The attempt to transpose the Western European model of agricultural diversification to the acceding countries via the SAPARD programme is questionable, as non-farm centric rural policies appear to be more appropriate.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Timothy J. Dalton
Zaragoza, 2003
New crop varieties often have been promoted in developing countries based upon superior yield vis-a-vis locally available varieties. This research presents a hedonic model for upland rice by drawing upon the input characteristics and consumer good characteristics model literature. Model specification tests determine that a combination of production and consumption characteristics best explains the willingness to pay for new upland rice varieties. This non-separable household model specification determined that four traits explain the willingness to pay for new rice varieties: plant cycle length, plant height, grain elongation/swelling and tenderness. Yield was not a significant explanatory variable of the willingness to pay for seed. br>
The implications of this model are two-fold. First, varietal development and promotion must include post-harvest characteristics in addition to production traits when determining which varieties to promote for official release. Secondly, non- yield production characteristics such as plant height and cycle length are significant factors in producers_ assessments of the value of a new variety. Overall, this paper provides an alternative explanation for limited adoption of modern upland rice varieties in West Africa: varietal evaluation programs have focused too narrowly on yield evaluation and have not promoted varieties with superior non-yield characteristics than locally available varieties.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Bruno Henry De Frahan, Christian Tritten
2002
This paper proposes a partial equilibrium displacement model that differentiates wheat according to its end-use and country of origin to investigate the impact of alternative European trade policies on wheat supply and demand in France. Transmission, demand and supply elasticities are estimated for each class and origin of wheat. Simulation results show that rebalancing trade protection across wheat classes encourages domestic supply of high quality wheat and displaces imports from North America.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Klaus Deininger, Paul Mpuga
Durban, 2003
Although there is broad agreement that well functioning land rental markets will play an important role to increase productivity and household welfare as agrarian economies develop, evidence from Africa on the actual performance and impact of such markets is limited. We use data from Uganda to test for differences in the performance of rental, as compared to sales markets and their evolution over time, based on a framework where markets are affected by differences in ability and imperfections in rural labor and capital markets.

We find that land markets are very active, that land rental but not sales markets transfer land to more efficient and relatively poor producers thereby providing an opportunity for the landless to access land, and that rental market activity has increased recently with economic growth. Despite land prices in some regions being above the net present value of land we find no evidence for sales markets leading to land concentration and conclude that, rather than imposing administrative restrictions, government should aim to improve access to alternative savings instruments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Marion Desquilbet, Stephane Lemarie, Fabrice Levert
2002
In this paper, we conduct an empirical investigation of potential adoption of herbicide-tolerant (HT) genetically modified (GM) rapeseed in France. Our aim is to study ex ante the potential impact of their adoption in France, in terms of adoption level, economic gains, and distribution of these gains between farmers and input suppliers. We use French survey data about current plant protection practices, in order to compute pesticide costs with conventional (i.e., non GM) crops for individual farms. Then, based on results of technical studies about GM variety trials in France, we compute a predicted pesticide cost with the GM variety. Next, we study adoption rates and gains or losses of farmers (adopters and non adopters) and upstream companies (sellers of conventional herbicides, of the total herbicide to which GM rapeseed is tolerant, of GM seed), depending on the GM seed license price, the margin rate on herbicide sales and the price of conventional herbicides.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Daniel Deybe, Abigail Fallot
Durban, 2003
Relationships between the greenhouse effect and agricultural activity are usually and firstly considered in terms of the impact of climate change on agriculture. But in reverse, farmers and herders may react to a climate policy imposing a carbon price to GHG-emitting activities, and possibly contribute to the emissions mitigation as well as to carbon sequestration. The degree of efficiency of the reactions will vary across regions of the world and across activities. A methodology considering risk associated with technology changes is proposed for estimating and accounting these reactions under production and resource constraints. For a business-as-usual scenario quantified by the integrated assessment model Image, decisions concerning land-use and alternative practices are modeled. Results indicate that main agricultural activities provide little room for manoeuvre for emissions mitigation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marijke D'Haese, Wim Verbeke, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Johann Kirsten, Luc D'Haese
Durban, 2003
Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for the farmer to develop a viable business.

This article investigates on the effect of membership in the local shearing shed association on the farmers. revenue. A two-step regression model of the gross margin is used to analyse whether farmers selling through the local association have better financial records as compared to those who sell their wool to local traders. This article exemplifies how institutional innovation through local marketing associations can contribute to economic development in poor rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Boubaker Dhehibi, Jose Maria Gil, Ana M. Angulo
Durban, 2003
The objective of this paper is to analyse the Spanish demand for food taking into account the consumer.s concern about the relationship between food diet and health. This concern is forcing food demand analysts to assume that consumer utility is a function of nutrients instead of simply the food products themselves. A CBS demand model has been considered to model the new demand function obtained, which is estimated with a complete panel data set. Ten broad categories, nine nutrients and the most relevant socio-economic variables have been considered. Finally, after an apropriate model selection strategy, expenditure, price and nutrient elasticities, as well as main sociodemographic effects, have been calculated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Rafaela Dios Palomares, Jose Miguel Martinez Paz
Zaragoza, 2002
This study investigated the efficiency and productivity change of a sample of food distribution units (MERCAs) in Spain over the 1.997-1.999 period, applying non-parametric frontier methodology in a sales efficiency framework. We specified a mean sales model composed of two blocks of variables, the production block, and the marketing management block. Then we applied output oriented DEA methodology to perform the efficiency analysis, also taking into account the overall efficiency decomposition into pure and scale efficiency. The Malmquist index was calculated in order to analyse the components of the productivity change.

The mean pure sales efficiency index was high, around 0.8, the mean scale index being 0,9. As appears from the results, six food distribution units were efficient, but some of the wholesale markets need to adapt their sales technology in order that their input bundle reaches a Most Productive Scale Size unit.

We found no evidence of technical change during the period considered, but concluded that a notable scale efficiency change took place during the studied period.

To summarise, we conclude that improvement in sales efficiency could be reached in the studied sector in both the pure and the scale efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Cynthia Donovan, Linda Bailey, Edson Mpyisi, Michael Weber
Durban, 2003
In Rwanda for the past decade, rural households have lived with civil unrest and genocide, changing land laws, large population flows both into and out of the country, and climatic threats with droughts and floods. The illness and untimely death of prime age adults from a number of health problems (increasingly HIV/AIDS) adds to the stress of these households and has lasting effects on the ability of households to survive. In this research, the authors use household and member level survey data to increase understanding about what is happening in households with such shocks and how they may be different from other Rwandan rural households.

This research finds that households affected by adult illness and death strive to maintain their agricultural production, and work to avoid selling assets, yet some households appear to be in a downward spiral, losing assets and income earning potential. They rely heavily on social networks for labor and skills, but clearly these networks will be stretched beyond their means in any continuing epidemics. Female-headed households in particular struggle to find labor with neighbors or work more themselves. If special programs are developed for the affected families, focusing on increasing land and labor productivity fits into their own strategies. Since households with prime age death and disease appear to be similar to other Rwandan households in the poorest two quintiles, such programs would be beneficial to rural households in general, and possibly strengthen social networks through generalized agricultural and income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
W. Dunne, John J. O'Connell
2002
For decades the CAP has been the major influence in shaping EU agriculture and food production. The economic and policy environment in the EU is now very different from that which prevailed in the earlier decades. The future economic, social and geographic diversity of the EU will be further increased by enlargement. Agricultural policies and the related operational frameworks will inevitably change to accommodate this added diversity and the changing societal and consumer values. This paper evaluates how the current shape of EU agriculture has been influenced by the reforms to date. It also attempts to focus on where EU farming may be, or wish to go, over the next decade. The evaluation is restricted to the beef sector as it has been to the forefront in the policy reforms of the last decade and because the adjustments were inevitably complex due to the scale of the oversupply problems, the biological and market intricacies involved.

This evaluation concluded that the current EU beef policy is severely constrained with poor targeting of the income supports, high production costs, based on an administratively complex and expensive control system without any clear benefit to either society or taxpayer for a rather large expenditure. In the past, agricultural policy in the EU was primarily driven by the need for a secure food supply and with the objective of sustaining the economic and social needs of farmers. But, in the well fed and affluent EU society of the 21 st century, agricultural policy will be mainly driven by the economic and social goals which are rapidly changing. This society places a declining value on extra units of food production, but an increasing value on any public goods consumed in the production process. As a consequence, the mix of agricultural production and public goods that this society is prepared to support financially is changing rapidly. The level and components of farm incomes in the EU in the 21 st century will reflect these changes. Farm revenue will likely consist of a mix of payments for conventional agricultural products and public goods. The public good payments will be conditional on the level and type of inputs used, farming practices, types of products produced and a societal vision of the role of farming. This will affect production costs, scale of operation and the future configuration of agriculture and rural society. To meet this evolving situation the paper also develops and outlines a multi-commodity framework by which the EU could reorient its direct payment (DP) system to incorporate a range of public good values to the mutual benefit of consumers, taxpayers and farmers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Pierre Dupraz, Isabel Vanslembrouck, Francois Bonnieux, Guido Van Huylenbroeck
2002
This paper examines the factors influencing farmers' participation in several agri-environmental schemes. A multinominal logit model is used to separate between participating and nonparticipating farmers. In addition this model allows to predict farmers participation in one measure as well as in different measures simultaneously. Data stems from a survey conducted in eight European countries and includes a description of both farmer and farm characteristics. Three categories of schemes have been analysed: landscape maintenance, biodiversity protection and restriction of intensive farming practices. The combination of these three types of schemes provides eight possible packages which can be selected by eligible farmers.

The multinominal logit model shows the importance of both farm and farmer as well as attitudinal characteristics on the participation in different combinations of schemes. For instance, the environmental concern favours landscape maintenance and biodiversity protection as well as their combinations with schemes requiring restrictions of intensive practices. However, it has a negative effect on the single participation in schemes requiring restrictions of intensive practices only. Our analysis confirms a number of previous findings. In addition, it shows the importance for policy makers to take into account that farmers have the opportunity to enter several schemes simultaneously. Indeed, due to cost complementarities, joint participation provides both private and public benefits.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jay Fabiosa, John C. Beghin, Stephane de Cara, Cheng Fang, Murat Isik, Holger Matthey
2003
Using a partial equilibrium model of world agriculture, we investigate the multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortion of world agricultural markets. These distortions have significant terms-of-trade effects. World trade is also significantly impacted by both types of distortions. Trade expansion is substantial for most commodities, especially dairy, meats, and vegetable oils. Net agricultural and food exporters (Brazil, Australia, and Argentina) emerge with expanded exports; whereas net importing countries with limited distortions before liberalization are penalized by higher world markets prices and reduced imports. The US gains significant export shares in livestock products and imports more dairy products. Without protection and domestic subsidies, the EU loses many of its livestock and dairy export markets.
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