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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 14

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JK L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Philip D. Adams, Lill Andersen, Lars-Bo Jacobsen
Zaragoza, 2002
We describe how an applied dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy has been developed to generate structural forecasts. The forecasts provide a microeconomic picture that is consistent with a macroeconomic scenario and the other inputs. We provide an overview of the inputs required to generate the forecasts and of the forecast methodology. Finally, we present aspects of the forecasting results.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rajeev Ahuja, Johannes Jutting
2003
Community based micro insurance has aroused much interest and hope in meeting health care challenges facing the poor. In this paper we explore how institutional rigidities such as credit constraint impinge on demand for health insurance and how insurance could potentially prevent poor households from falling into poverty trap. In this setting, we argue that the appropriate public intervention in generating demand for insurance is not to subsidise premium but to remove these rigidities (easing credit constraint in the present context).

Thus from insurance perspective as well, our analysis highlights the importance of having appropriate savings and borrowing instruments for the poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Bjerre, Jorgen Dejgaard Jensen
2002
The paper deals with problems concerning the current sugar policy within the Common Agricultural Policy, especially the efficiency losses due to the combination of high prices and quota on subsidised sugar production. Based on a simple econometric model, the total economic costs of the current policy setting, compared with an unregulated setting, are estimated to be in the area of 20 per cent of the total sugar production, valued at world market prices. Of these costs, some 10 per cent are due to inefficiency in the crop production, as the opportunity costs of land are not taken into account because the sugar price support within the quota overrules these opportunity costs. However, according to the estimates obtained in the present study, the main economic gains by reducing the internal prices are to be found in terms of reduced consumer costs rather than improved efficiency in land use.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Senhui He, Wojciech J. Florkowski, Jeffery L. Jordan
2002
This paper addresses the issue of rationality of responses in contingent valuation. We found a significant portion of respondents stated a positive willingness-to-pay for a project they perceived to be worthless. The irrational responses had a significant impact on the mean stated willingness-to-pay and the effect can not be removed by simply excluding the those observations from estimation. The dichotomous-choice elicitation format helps to mitigate the effect of the irrational responses, but can not completely solve the problem.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
T. S. Jayne, Takashi Yamano, James Nyoro
2003
This paper addresses the potential for interlinked credit/input/output marketing arrangements for particular cash crops to promote food crop intensification. Using panel survey data from Kenya, we estimate a household fixed-effects model of fertilizer use per hectare of food crops, using an instrumental variables approach for addressing the endogeneity of participation in interlinked credit arrangements. Results indicate that households engaging in interlinked marketing programs for selected cash crops applied considerably greater fertilizer on other crops (primarily cereals) not directly purchased by the cash crop trading firm. These findings suggest that, in addition to the direct stimulus that interlinked cash crop marketing arrangements can have on small farmer incomes, these institutional arrangements may provide spillover benefits for the productivity of the farmers. other activities such as food cropping.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Nancy L. Johnson, Ruth Suarez, Mark Lundy
2003
This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document the functions that social capital performs within firms. To estimate social capital’s contribution to firm structure and performance, quantitative indicators of firm-level use of social capital are developed based on the number and strength of external relationships that firms maintain. Econometric analysis finds that firm-level returns to relationships are positive and higher than to physical or human capital. The results suggests that while firms can increase their economic performance by investing in social capital, ameliorating the effects of the market failures that lead to use of social relations for business purposes could also improve both equity and efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Roel Jongeneel
2002
This paper analyses the impact of the dairy quota scheme on the size distribution of the Dutch dairy industry. A non-stationary Markov model approach is used, where the transition probabilities are explained by a set of exogenous (policy) variables. Using an information theoretical approach, a model is estimated for The Netherlands and used to simulate the impacts of alternative EU dairy policies. Several results emerged:
a) There is an autonomous over time decline in farm numbers (implying increase in farm size).
b) The dairy quota regime positively influences 'small' and 'medium' farm sizes;
c) Abolition of the dairy quota will negatively affect the total number of active farms and favours further increase of farm scale.
d) Targeting support according to needs increases the number of active dairy farms as compared with the status quo.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Johannes Jutting
2002
Community based health insurance schemes are becoming increasingly recognized as an instrument which help farmers in rural areas of low income countries to better manage health. Health risks present a permanent threat to the income earning capacity of poor people. Beside direct economic cost for treatment and lost working time, indirect cost such as a reduction in labor supply materialize which increases the vulnerability of the household. It is often hypothesized that community based health insurance improve social protection, but quantitative analysis is largely missing. Against this background, this paper analyzes if members in a mutual health insurance scheme have a better access to health care than non-members taking “les mutuelles de santés” (mutual health organization) in rural Senegal as an example. Limited dependent and log linear regressions are used to capture the impact of health insurance on the probability of visiting a health care provider and the out-of-pocket expenditure at the point of use . The results of the analysis show that while community based health insurance schemes reach otherwise excluded people, the poorest of the poor in the communities are not covered. Regarding the impact on the access to health care, members have a higher probability of using hospitalization services compared to non-members and pay substantially less when they need care. Given the results from this study, community financing schemes have the potential to improve the risk management capacity of rural households.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Luka Juvancic, Emil Erjavec
Durban, 2003
The paper attempts to quantify determinants influencing dynamics of employment decisions on agricultural households in Slovenia and to test specific aspects of labour reallocation during transition period by application of agricultural household model. Through the use of 1991 . 2000 panel data for 22,055 farm households, quantitative analysis of intertemporal employment decisions of farm holders is carried out by the use of probit techniques. Determinants tested refer to personal characteristics of reference persons (gender, age, education level, opportunity off-farm income), household characteristics (size, structure), characteristics of the agricultural holding (economic size, labour input, labour intensity) and local labour market conditions. The model results generally confirm the existing empirical evidence on asymmetrical and irreversible participation of holders at the labour market. Despite intensive restructuring of agriculture and profound changes in non-farm labour market in the analysed period, labour supply of farm holders remains rigid. Mobility of labour supply is lower than expected, which can be attributed to the importance of structural problems constraining intersectoral mobility. A marked tendency towards upkeeping of the same employment status is more distincted in the case of holders employed on the farm. A low level of labour supply mobility worsens efficiency of labour allocation on agricultural holdings in Slovenia. Elements of this problem emerge on both, supply (e.g. low level of educational and professional attainment of reference persons) and demand side of labour market (e.g. unfavourable local labour market conditions).
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
Durban, 2003
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Sinne Smed, Jorgen Dejgaard Jensen
2002
This paper examines the cross-impacts of food safety news concerning one product on the demand for another product, using the Danish demand for pasteurized eggs versus shell eggs as an illustrative case. The study identifies news with a temporary impact and news with a permanent impact on consumers’ food demand behavior. The techniques used to identify the permanent versus temporary news are recursive estimation and parameter stability. Whereas “permanent” news is identified to be represented by a specific individual event, “temporary” news concerning salmonella in eggs is aggregated into a news-index variable. Both temporary and permanent news concerning salmonella in shell eggs appear to have significant positive impacts on the demand for pasteurized eggs. The model is estimated as an Error Correction Model. Consumers are found to adjust quite rapidly to both temporary and permanent news. Both the composition of egg consumption accounted as mean budget shares varies across socio-demographic household groups as well as the impact of the considered permanent news.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Tugrul Temel, Willem Janssen, Fuad Karimov
Zaragoza, 2002
This paper develops a quantitative, graph-theoretic method for analysing systems of institutions. With an application to the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan, the method is illustrated in detail. An assessment of existing institutional linkages in the system suggests that efforts should be placed on the development of intermediary institutions to facilitate quick and effective flow of knowledge between the public and the private components of the system. Furthermore, significant accomplishments are yet to come in policy-making, research and education, and credit institutions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
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