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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 27

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J KL M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Guy Blaise Nkamleu, Jim Gokowski, Harounan Kazianga
Durban, 2003
This paper examines changes in agricultural productivity in 10 Sub-saharan countries. The relative performance of agricultural sector was gauged using data envelopment analysis. From a panel data set of the 10 countries which included the 28-year period 1972-1999, mathematical programming methods were used to measure Malmquist indexes of total factor productivity. It was found that, during that period, total factor productivity have experienced a negative evolution in sample countries. A decomposition of those measures suggest that, most of the weak performance of factors productivity is attributable more to technological change than technical efficiency change. French-speaking countries better succeeded to raise their productivity than English-speaking countries do. In addition, it have been found that Sahelian countries failed to rise their agricultural productivity compared to forest countries where a positive evolution have been detected.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Ayalneh Bogale, Konrad Hagedorn, Benedikt Korf
Durban, 2003
This paper seeks to address the question: why does poverty persist in rural Ethiopia? We argue that it is largely a lack of entitlements to fundamental livelihood assets which urges poor rural farmers into livelihood diversification to make a living. We base our findings on empirical work, which is based on information gathered from a three-round survey of 149 rural households in Ethiopia during 1999/2000 cropping season. The FGT poverty index is employed to examine the extent and severity of rural poverty and reveals that nearly 40% of the sample households live below poverty line with average poverty gap of 0.047. The binary logit estimates shed light on factors behind the persistence of poverty and indicates that rural poverty is strongly linked to entitlement failures to crucial assets such as land, human capital and oxen. The study also reveals that poor households attempt to smooth their consumption and income through livelihood diversification, among which petty trading, charcoal making and fuelwood gathering for sale, brewing and
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
J. Stephen Clark, Kurt K. Klein, William A. Kerr
2003
A new procedure is developed to estimate innovation possibility frontiers and test for biases in technological change. Using data on four inputs (land, machinery, chemicals and labour) from central Canada (Ontario and Quebec) over the period 1926-1985, we find that the innovations possibilities frontier shifts neutrally over time. This is consistent with Ahmad.s model of induced innovations, but is not consistent with de Janvry.s application of Ahmad.s model to the historical development of Argentine agriculture. Agricultural research in Canada has been conducted with the objective of developing cost minimizing technologies. Empirical support was found for this notion in the development of the innovation possibilities frontier.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marijke D'Haese, Wim Verbeke, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Johann Kirsten, Luc D'Haese
Durban, 2003
Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for the farmer to develop a viable business.

This article investigates on the effect of membership in the local shearing shed association on the farmers. revenue. A two-step regression model of the gross margin is used to analyse whether farmers selling through the local association have better financial records as compared to those who sell their wool to local traders. This article exemplifies how institutional innovation through local marketing associations can contribute to economic development in poor rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Fotopoulos, Athanasios Krystallis, Mitchell Ness
2002
The present study attempts to offer more insights into the Greek wine market with emphasis on wines produced from organically grown grapes by relating wine choice to consumers’ personal value structure. With the use of a qualitative sample and applying the Means-end Chains methodology and the corresponding “laddering” interviewing technique, it attempts first to reveal the way basic motives are linked to wine shopping behaviour of consumers and the way wine purchase-relevant knowledge is stored and organised in their memory in relation to their personal values. Then, by discriminating between organic food buyers and non-buyers, the study identifies motivational and cognitive discriminating differences between the two consumer types, which can offer a solid explanation as to their distinctive purchasing behaviour in respect of the organic products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jason Hartell, Maureen Kilkenny, Johan Swinnen
2002
In this paper, we attempt to shed some light on the state of current thinking in Europe about rural development and policy. To do so, the priorities and preferences of European agricultural economists who work in the area of rural development policy were identified using a survey that asked the following questions: who do we believe needs help, what are the problems and objectives, which policies are likely to be effective, who is able to deliver, and where do we get these ideas? The paper documents the diversity in rural development problems and favored tactics across Europe.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Jill Hobbs, William A. Kerr, James Gaisford
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 416 с.
This book offers a coherent perspective on the transition to a market-based agri-food system in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. It provides a formal analysis of the entire food chain from farm inputs to final consumers, including imports and exports, and covers all major components of the system, from food security, multinationals, and commercial law, to theoretical approaches to prices, transaction costs, and bilateral monopolies.

В книге представлен анализ перехода к основанной на рыночных условиях хозяйствования агропродовольственной системе в странах центральной и восточной Европы, СНГ. Авторами рассматривается вся продовольственная цепочка от фермера до потребителя, структура, задействованные экономические агенты, импорт и экспорт, проблемы продовольственной безопасности, роль транснациональных корпораций, процессы ценообразования, трансакционные издержки, институты.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
E.E. Imad, Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim
Durban, 2003
This paper assesses and quantifies the consequences of world trade liberalization in agriculture on trade and food security of Sudan. Sudan, with the agricultural sector as the main sector of economy, is characterized by its small open economy, and is classified as one of the least developed countries. Thus, Sudan becomes more vulnerable to any changes in international agricultural markets. The liberalization of international agricultural trade has a great influence on Sudan's food security and on the whole economy. An extended form of a multi-market model for Sudan is developed and used for the analysis. The model embodies important characteristics of agriculture in Sudan like substitution effects and stages of production.

As agriculture is the main sector of Sudan's economy, the model is extended to explicitly integrate some of the key important macroeconomic linkages, and to establish certain feedback effects between agriculture and the macro-economy. The model simulations reveal that a higher world market price would overall lead to measurable gains in food security and agricultural trade of the country. However, when the effect of a higher cost of production is considered, the positive results are reversed. Furthermore, the results of the model simulations show that the domestic policy environment matters very much with respect to the potential impact of world trade liberalization of agriculture. The paper concludes that Sudan should reorient its national policies towards export promotion in order to benefit from the new emerging trading opportunities in world markets. However, to capture a greater benefit from the new environment in the international markets, Sudan should consider and manage carefully all factors, domestically or internationally - e.g. quality standard, loss of preference, dumping effects - that hinder its economic and trade growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Martin Kapfer, Jochen Kantelhardt, Elizabeth Osinski
2003
In comparison to large-scale natural landscapes separated from extensively used agricultural production landscapes in North America or Australia, German and Central Europe landscapes are all characterised by predominantly agricultural landscapes with few “rests of nature”. Due to the high population density, different types of land users demand different functions of the landscape. In addition to food production, there is a high demand for protection of cultural heritage by caring for e.g. hedgerows in the landscape. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs arising from the maintenance of landscape elements in landscapes situated on land with different site conditions. As an example, the distribution of hedgerows on sites of varying agricultural quality were considered. The calculations were undertaken on the entire area of Baden- Wuerttemberg in Southwest Germany, comprising various administrative districts. The association between ecological and economic information was analysed statistically and with the help of GIS. The results indicate that the costs for landscape element protection differ within the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg and that there is a lot of economic pressure against hedgerow biotopes existing in certain districts. Measures for protection such as agri-environmental programmes should consider the different landscape-dependent costs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Giannis Karagiannis, Peter Midmore, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
The objective of this paper is to develop a tractable approach for recovering and quantifying all sources of TFP changes (namely, technical change, changes in technical and allocative efficiency, and scale economies) from the econometric estimation of an input distance function which also fully describes the production technology. The proposed theoretical framework relies on Bauer’s TFP decomposition framework and the duality between input distance and cost functions. Hence, instead of using a system approach to estimate a cost frontier, all necessary information for decomposing TFP changes are recovered from its dual counterpart.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Giannis Karagiannis, Alexander Sarris
Zaragoza, 2002
In this paper we apply the technical inefficiency effect model to a set of eight different crop products (i.e., wheat, mixed arable crops, tobacco, cotton, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse horticulture) in Greek agriculture.

For each product, a panel data set covering the period 1991- 1995 is used and separate econometric results are obtained for each product. A particular set of socioeconomic and demographic variables is used to explain technical efficiency differentials among Greek farmers, including the direct subsidies given to each farmer, and the concordance of these efficiency determinants is discussed across the eight different crop products considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stelios D. Katranidis
2002
This paper examines the welfare effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) cotton, maize and sugar beet regimes practiced in Greece after its 1981 entry into the European Union. These markets are considered as horizontally related because there are usually the same farmers that use the same areas to produce various combinations of the relevant products. We use bootstrap techniques to conduct a statistical analysis of the estimated welfare measurements. The welfare analysis indicates that the income amounts transferred to farmers rose significantly in the period between 1981 and 1992. The 1992 CAP reform slowed down this trend, and transfers have remained at an almost statistically constant level since 1992.
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Farm management [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Ronald D. Kay, William M. Edwards
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 512 с.
Учебник по управлению сельскохозяйственным предприятием. Раскрываются основные составляющие процесса принятия решений в сельском хозяйстве, встающие перед современным управленцем в АПК – проведение прикладного микроэкономическго анализа состояния предприятия, разработка бюджетирования, и работа с информационными системами. Среди многих проблем, получивших глубокое рассмотрение в учебнике, можно выделить планирование производства, анализ финансового состояния предприятия, процесс покупки ресурсов и получения кредита.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Michiel Keyzer, Max Merbis, Ferdinand Pavel
2002
The paper argues that current long-term projections of global meat and feed demand may underestimate future consumption patterns for mainly two reasons. First, they do not explicitly consider increased demand for protein foods of animal origin with rising incomes in some developing contries, and second they do not allow for changes in livestock technology, in particular feed demand. We then project the impact of both mechanisms to show the empirical relevance of our comments and suggest ready-to-use tools to consider them within standard projection models.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Renee Kim, Milton Boyd
2002
Country of origin labeling and brand labeling play important roles in affecting purchasing behavior of buyers in the Korean beef supply chain. This paper presents a model which explain differences in the attitudes and purchase behaviors of three marketing groups regarding country of origin and other important quality attributes. The results show some of the diversity of buyers’ attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay for different country of origin and brand of foreign packers in three marketing groups.
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