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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 18

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M NO P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruno Barbier, Robert R. Hearne, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Andy Nelson
2003
In Honduras, traditional coffee processing is the cause of two major problems: poor coffee quality and contaminated water. In this paper we present a method that determines the trade-off between economic efficiency and contamination in a Honduran sub-watershed. The method is a bioeconomic model based on mathematical programming that simulates the functioning of the interlinked economic and ecological processes in the sub-watershed. We compare various scenarii where the model is given the possibility of replacing traditional coffee processing plants with a network of improved ecological plants. For different levels of contamination the model determines the optimal location and size of new coffee processing plants along river streams by minimizing transport, variable and fixed costs. The restrictions of the system are the volume of wet coffee to be processed, the available stream water, and in the alternative scenarii, investment capital and contaminant concentration in the river. We apply the method to a typical sub-watershed in the hillsides of western Honduras and show that coffee quality can be improved and contamination can be reduced substantially at a relatively low cost.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Peter Bogetoft, Kurt Nielsen
Durban, 2003
This paper discuss the design of multidimensional yardstick based procurement auction. The suggested design combines Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based yardstick schemes with the multidimensional score auction. The principal select a single winner to perform a project, characterized by a multidimensional vector. The design is especially useful when there are uncertainty about the underlying common cost structure as well as the principal’s valuation function. Potential applications in natural resource management is provided.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Alessandro Corsi, Silvia Novelli
2002
The goal of this paper is to estimate the maximum price consumers are willing to pay (MPWTP) for organic beef meat. To this purpose, a theoretical and econometric approach is presented, based on the RUM model and on a Contingent Valuation technique.

The results show that consumers’ MPWTP is quite high, thus suggesting that organic beef meat might gain an appreciable market share. This is also an encouraging signal for prospective producers of organic meat, who might compensate the likely increase in production costs with a substantial premium for the new good.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Alessandro Corsi, Silvia Novelli
Durban, 2003
In this paper, models for estimating the maximum price consumers are willing to pay (MPWTP) for organic beef meat, and the maximum quantity-constrained price (i.e., when buying the same quantity they bought of regular meat) consumers are willing to pay (MQCP), are presented. To this purpose, the relevant theoretical and econometric approaches are presented, based on the RUM model and on a Contingent Valuation technique.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Fotopoulos, Athanasios Krystallis, Mitchell Ness
2002
The present study attempts to offer more insights into the Greek wine market with emphasis on wines produced from organically grown grapes by relating wine choice to consumers’ personal value structure. With the use of a qualitative sample and applying the Means-end Chains methodology and the corresponding “laddering” interviewing technique, it attempts first to reveal the way basic motives are linked to wine shopping behaviour of consumers and the way wine purchase-relevant knowledge is stored and organised in their memory in relation to their personal values. Then, by discriminating between organic food buyers and non-buyers, the study identifies motivational and cognitive discriminating differences between the two consumer types, which can offer a solid explanation as to their distinctive purchasing behaviour in respect of the organic products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
T. S. Jayne, Takashi Yamano, James Nyoro
2003
This paper addresses the potential for interlinked credit/input/output marketing arrangements for particular cash crops to promote food crop intensification. Using panel survey data from Kenya, we estimate a household fixed-effects model of fertilizer use per hectare of food crops, using an instrumental variables approach for addressing the endogeneity of participation in interlinked credit arrangements. Results indicate that households engaging in interlinked marketing programs for selected cash crops applied considerably greater fertilizer on other crops (primarily cereals) not directly purchased by the cash crop trading firm. These findings suggest that, in addition to the direct stimulus that interlinked cash crop marketing arrangements can have on small farmer incomes, these institutional arrangements may provide spillover benefits for the productivity of the farmers. other activities such as food cropping.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Warren Lee, Michael Boehlje, Will Murray, Aaron Nelson
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1988, 480 с.
Explains the principles of agricultural finance, financial management of a farm business, and financial markets and agricultural credit institution.

Учебник по финансам в сельском хозяйстве. Рассматриваются принципы сельскохозяйственных финансов, финансовый менеджмент сельскохозяйственным предприятием, финансовые рынки и институт сельскохозяйственного кредита.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Hermann Lotze, Steffen Noleppa
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 429-443 с.
The paper discusses the general need for institutional innovation in the Russian Federation. An attempt to establish a Market Information System for the agro-food sector in Tula Oblast is taken as an example illustrating specific implementation problems. From the experience gained in this case, the authors derive some recommendations for improving institutional change in the process of transition. Important issues here are the adoption of a more general approach towards human resource development, the scheduling of longer time horizons in support projects, and improved vertical and horizontal co-ordination within the institutional network.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Cristina Marreiros, Mitchell Ness
Zaragoza, 2002
The objectives of this paper are to examine consumers’ perceptions of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) beef on the basis of a survey of consumers and buyers of beef.

The paper identifies a profile of PDO beef consumers, examines their behaviour and perceptions on PDO beef, derives the dimensions of perceptions of PDO beef, and establishes segments based upon those dimensions. The results reveal that PDO consumers are representative of all geographical regions, age and profession groups, are lighter consumers of beef and shop for food mainly in the butchers. Consumers’ perceptions on PDO beef emphasises quality, safety, and control. However, underlying those perceptions are six main dimensions and it is possible to identify three segments of PDO beef consumers: a faithful consumer group, an unaware consumer group, and a sensory, price conscious group.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Flora J. Nankhuni, Jill L. Findeis
Durban, 2003
This paper presents results of research that investigates if long hours of work spent by children in fuel wood collection and water collection activities, hereafter referred to as resource (collection) work, are related to the probability that a child aged 6-14 will attend school. Possible endogeneity of resource work hours is corrected for, using two-stage conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Using data from a 1997-98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey (IHS) conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO), the study finds that children are significantly involved in resource collection work and their probability of attending school decreases with increases in hours spent on this work. The study further shows that girls spend more hours on resource work and are more likely to be going to school while burdened by this work. Consequently, girls may find it difficult to progress well in school. However, girls are not necessarily less likely to be attending school. The results further show that presence of more women in a household is associated with a lower burden of resource work on children and a higher probability of children.s school attendance while that of men is not. Finally, the study shows that children from the most environmentally degraded districts of central and southern Malawi are less likely to attend school and few of them have progressed to secondary school compared to those from the north region districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
David M.G. Newbery
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2000, 484 с.
Network utilities, such as electricity, telephones, and gas, are public utilities that require a fixed network to deliver their services. Because consumers have no choice of network, they risk exploitation by network owners. Once invested, however, a network's capital is sunk, and the bargaining advantage shifts from investor to consumer. The investor, fearing expropriation, may be reluctant to invest. The tension between consumer and investor can be side-stepped by state ownership. Alternatively, private ownership and consumers' political power can be reconciled through regulation. Either way, network utilities operate under terms set by the state.

David Newbery argues that price-setting rules comprise only part of the policy agenda. Network utilities pose special problems of ownership and regulation. He discusses the history of ownership and regulation, privatization, and theories of regulation. Examining three network utilities in detail--telecoms, electricity, and gas--he contrasts the regulatory approaches of Britain and the United States. He also looks at liberalization in a variety of other countries.

History shows that the mature forms of regulatory institutions are remarkably similar under both public and private ownership. This raises obvious questions such as: Will the forces that caused convergence to regulated vertical integration in the past reassert themselves? Can the benefits of competition be protected against the pressure to reintegrate? Will different utilities differ in their form and structure? A full understanding of the forces shaping regulatory institutions is necessary to answer these important questions.

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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Huan Niemi
2002
The EU dairy sector will be one of the most sensitive sectors to be affected by the outcome of the on-going negotiations for the new WTO round for agriculture. Nevertheless, if the Next WTO Round is going to be along the same lines as the Uruguay Round, the EU may be able to stay within the WTO commitments for export subsidy in the dairy sector without further reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy. Certainly, some minor reforms are needed to relieve the binding commitments for cheese and other milk products. The upcoming reform in the dairy sector under Agenda 2000 starting from year 2005 may help in reforming the dairy sector for the new round. In contrast, a steeper reduction in the export subsidy commitments compared to the Uruguay Round may cause problems for cheese and other milk products because the majority of exports in these products will have to be exported without any export subsidy. After enlargement, in particular with a steeper reduction formula, the EU may face troubles in the categories of butter, skim milk powder, cheese, and other milk products. The reforms under Agenda 2000 may not be sufficient because the difference between the EU internal market price and world market price is still too high for EU dairy products to allow unsubsidised exports to the world market. The EU internal market will have to absorb the dairy products intended for the export market. Consequently, the EU internal market for dairy products will be under pressure for further price reduction, and the EU world market share in dairy products will shrink.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
2003
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rosanna Nistico, Giovanni Anania
Durban, 2003
Most food products can be classified as ‘credence’ goods and regulations exist to provide consumers with a substitute for the lacking information and trust. The paper presents an analysis of the decisions of producers and consumers about a ‘credence’ good in three institutional scenarios, which reflect different levels of credibility of the regulation.

The first scenario is a reference scenario in which the regulation is fully credible. In the second case considered there is no regulation, or, if there is, it is totally ineffective. In the third scenario a regulation only partially credible provides consumers with an imperfect substitute for the information and trust they lack. Some of the producers of ‘low’ quality goods share with the producers of .high. quality goods an interest in the introduction of a regulation as long as this is not fully credible. In addition, it may be the case that even producers of ’low’ quality goods who know they will not be able to sell their products labeling them as being of ‘high’ quality may have an interest in supporting a not fully credible regulation. Finally, rather than having producers of ‘low’ quality goods ‘block’ the introduction of a fully credible regulation, producers of ‘high’ quality goods are better off when a compromise is reached which leads to the approval of an imperfect regulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2002
The paper explores the question of diversity in agricultural practice as related to bio-diversity and landscape appearance. It starts with the observation that, in the past, diverse natural conditions have considerably impacted on adapted modes of agricultural production, more than today, and that previously performed farm practices were strongly affiliated with specific natural conditions. These practices positively contributed to a modified, diverse and man-made environment which is frequently considered a beautiful landscape. This has changed dramatically. Particularly, where the European countryside is regarded a natural heritage, today, the public seems to be worried about modern farm practices. After the adoption of modern techniques, farmers prefer to apply unified production technologies and tend to set-up uniform farm structures and product mixes as well as land cultivation practices based on purchased inputs. Farm operations equalise natural conditions and contribute to uniform land rents. However, a rising public concern for the preservation of bio-diversity is asking for change and new measures. Additional to regulations on farm practices governments seek to compensate farmers for nature preservation and production of bio-diversity. Presuming that high biodiversity is dependent on diversity in agricultural practice and landscape appearance due to preserved natural conditions, the paper develops a model that links payments to diversity in farm practice and natural conditions. The applied model is landscape-oriented and classifies farm behaviour according to agronomic conditions. A reference system for a unified technology is presented and implications for payments are discussed using a behavioural approach. This behavioural approach focuses on regional dynamics in natural condition as major determinants for bio-diversity and payments as determinants for farm practices. Payments are directed to re-establish diversity in farm practices, counteract current technology dominance, and assure a new exposure to nature, though only partly. Diversity becomes prevalent; notably according to an economic calculus of costs and benefits from taxpayers' point of view.
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