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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 19

Книги

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q RS T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2008
Steven T. Berry, Peter C. Reiss
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2007
This chapter surveys empirical models of market structure. We pay particular attention to equilibrium models that interpret cross-sectional variation in the number of firms or firm turnover rates. We begin by discussing what economists can in principle learn from models with homogeneous potential entrants. We then turn to models with heterogeneous firms. In the process, we review applications that analyze market structure in airline, retail, professional, auction, lodging, and broadcasting markets. We conclude with a summary of more recent models that incorporate incomplete information, “set identified” parameters, and dynamics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rosa Gallardo, Fernando Ramos, Eduardo Ramos
2002
The evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and its successive Reforms, has caused a loss of both internal coherence and social legitimacy. On the other hand, the Agenda 2000 has situated agriculture within the objective of competitiveness. What may well be asked is whether indeed the different European agricultural systems are converging towards this objective of competitiveness. To be able to reply to this question it is necessary to change from a “meso” analysis of the CAP to a “micro” analysis of farms referring to specific regions.

Starting from this context and problem, this paper analyses how the agriculture of the region of Andalusia can be affected by the competitiveness approach in an area which is in an advanced process of modernization but nevertheless maintains a strong agricultural character and a dependence on the CAP. For this analysis, we have started from the fact that farmers make strategic decisions so as to adapt to a changing political situation. The main objective of this work is to contrast the importance of a combination of structural and strategic variables to explain the differences in the competitive position of agricultural systems compared with different situations of the CAP. In order to achieve this objective, analytical instruments of competitive and strategic approaches, normally designed for individual enterprises in other economic sectors, have been used, adapting them to the agricultural system as a whole. The results allow the affirmation that the farmers who obtain the best competitive positions are those who adopt a strategic position concerning their activity, with a greater coherence between the definition of their objectives and of the resource allocation strategies they design in order to achieve them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 20-04-2004
Представлены материалы научной конференции, проведённой университетом штата Мэриленд и Аналитическим центр АПЭ 6-7 июля 2001 г. в Голицино-2. Цель конференции, посвященной исследованию рынков факторов производства в АПК России, - оценить степень изученности проблемы и наметить направления исследований в данной области по программе "Базис".
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
Durban, 2003
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Geir Wachler Gustavsen, Kyrre Rickertsen
Zaragoza, 2002
Increased consumption of vegetables may reduce obesity and the prevalence of cardiac diseases and cancer. Norwegians consume less vegetables than nutrition experts recommend and the per capita consumption is lower than in most European countries.

To investigate the causes of low consumption, a two-step approach is used to estimate the demand segmented by nine different household types. In the first step, a probit model is estimated to investigate the decision whether to purchase traditional vegetables, salad vegetables, and industrially processed vegetables. Conditional on purchase, an almost ideal demand model is used to model how much to purchase. The own-price elasticities and total expenditure elasticities are high for traditional and industrially processed vegetables for most household types. Especially households with children have elastic demand. Lower value added tax or lower import tariffs for traditional and industrially processed vegetables will increase the demand for these vegetables, while reducing the price of salad vegetables seem to have a limited effect. For households with children, increased incomes have large effects on the demand for traditional and industrially processed vegetables indicating that, for example, increased child support will result in increased vegetable consumption.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Agnar Hegrenes, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Gudbrand Lien
Durban, 2003
A model is presented to investigate the optimal economic life cycle of grass leys with winter damage problems in northern Norway and to determine the threshold of winter damage before it is profitable to reseed. A two-level hierarchic Markov process has been constructed using the MLHMP software. The model takes uncertainty concerning yield potential, damage estimation and weather dependent random fluctuations into account. A Kalman filter technique is used for updating of knowledge on yield potential and damage level.

The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Norwegian farms. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among farms, it is concluded that decision support concerning optimal economic life cycle of grass leys should be done at farm level. The results also show the importance of using a flexible dynamic replacement strategy. Use of the model for a specific farm situation is illustrated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Richard Howitt, Arnaud Reynaud
2002
In this paper we develop a dynamic data-consistent way for estimating agricultural land use choices at a disaggregate level (district-level), using more aggregate data (regional-level). The disaggregation procedure requires two steps. The first step consists in specifying and estimating a dynamic model of land use at the regionallevel. In the second step, we disaggregate outcomes of the aggregate model using maximum entropy (ME). The ME disaggregation procedure is applied to a sample of California data. The sample includes 6 districts located in Central Valley and 8 possible crops, namely: Alfalfa, Cotton, Field, Grain, Melons, Tomatoes, Vegetables and Subtropical. The disaggregation procedure enables the recovery of land use at the district-level with an out-sample prediction error of 16%. This result shows that the micro behavior, inferred from aggregate data with our disaggregation approach, seems to be consistent with observed behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Lips, Peter Rieder
2002
This paper discusses an approach to implement output quotas in the GTAP model which permits an endogenous adjustment of both the supplied quantity and the quota rent. Since the quota rent is interpreted as additional earnings of the factors used no change of the worldwide GTAP data base is required. Several modifications of the GTAP model and two exogenous coefficients are necessary. Considering uncertain values of one of the coefficients, systematic sensitivity analysis is applied. The abolishment of the raw milk quota in the European Union would lead to a remarkable decrease in raw milk prices in most member countries. The raw milk production increases in Denmark, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands while it declines in Greece and Portugal. In the other member countries the raw milk production changes slightly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Tim Lloyd, Steve McCorriston, Wyn Morgan, Tony Rayner
Durban, 2003
This paper is concerned with the impact of the BSE crisis in the UK and focuses on price transmission between retail and farm prices. From a theoretical perspective we show that market power has an effect on price transmission between retail and farm prices following a demand shock. The empirical results suggest that the impact of a food scare on farm prices to be more than double that of retail prices, the direction of this effect being consistent with the impact of oligopoly dominating the effect (if any) of oligopsony.

However, important in assessing the full impact of a food scare is the ability of consumers to switch into substitute products. This is also evident following the BSE crisis with the availability of substitutes contributing significantly to the overall impact on price adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Hans Lofgren, Sherman Robinson, James Thurlow
2003
Zambia.s strong dependence on copper exports has suppressed other tradables sectors, indicative of a Dutch disease phenomenon. The current copper crisis will have strong economic effects, possibly reversing such Dutch disease effects. We use a computable general equilibrium model built around a 1995 social accounting matrix to simulate the short- and long-run effects of two scenarios that reflect the current crisis, a 20 percent reduction in world copper prices and a complete collapse of copper mining. Compared to the short run, the long run is characterized by more flexibility in production technology and capital allocation. Both scenarios require a significant reduction in the .non-copper. trade deficit, absorption, and household consumption. The strongest effects occur under the short-run mining-collapse scenario where household consumption falls by 13 percent and the real exchange rate depreciates by 42 percent. In the long run, these effects are approximately half as strong. The short- and long-run impacts of a 20 percent fall in world copper prices include a cut in household consumption by 4-5 percent and real depreciation by 7-10 percent. For all scenarios, the welfare losses for rural households are below the national average. Given that per-capita consumption is lower in rural areas, inequality falls. This distributional outcome is driven by the fact that the agro-food-fiber complex, which produces outputs that are relatively tradable, expands relative to the rest of the economy in terms of value-added, employment, and exports, suggesting that the copper crisis may induce an agricultural renaissance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Sanzidur Rahman
Zaragoza, 2003
Production inefficiency is usually analysed by its two components – technical efficiency and allocative efficiency. In this study we provide a direct measure of production efficiency of the Bangladeshi rice farmers using a stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency effects model. The data, which is for 1996, includes seven conventional inputs and several other background factors affecting production of modern or high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice spread across 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh.

The results show that there are high levels of inefficiency in modern rice cultivation. The mean level of profit efficiency is 77% suggesting that an estimated 23% of the profit is lost due to a combination of both technical and allocative inefficiency in modern rice production. The efficiency differences are explained largely by infrastructure, soil fertility, experience, extension services, tenancy and share of non-agricultural income.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emmanuelle Raynaud, Loic Sauvee, Egizio Valceschini
2002
For many agricultural products, the quality of the final products strongly depends on different stages of the productive chain. This stresses the importance of relationships between quality signal owners and suppliers in the vertical chain. Based on a New Institutional Economics analysis, the goal of this paper is twofold:
(i) to design a framework to study the links between quality signaling, coordination in the supply chains and the institutional environment,
(ii) to conduct a comparative analysis to identify, compare and explain the modes of organization implemented for the governance of different quality signs.
The general hypothesis is that, in order to assure the credibility of a quality signal, there must be an efficient alignment between quality characteristics and governance of the supply chain. To test this general hypothesis, we have conducted a comparative analysis of 42 case studies in 3 sectors (processed meat, cheese, fruit and vegetable sectors) from 7 European countries. This diversity allows us to compare the organizations designed to govern different quality signals in different institutional environments and to test the matching between quality signals and governance structures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Arjan Ruijs, Caspar Schweigman, Clemens Lutz
2003
Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For many developing countries, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium model is presented to analyze the effects of reduced costs on cereal price formation, inter-regional cereal trade, and farmers' and traders' storage strategies for the case of Burkina Faso. Our results show that the high expectations with regard to the direct effects of cost reductions on food prices and food availability require some nuance. First, the effects of even a huge reduction of transport costs only will be small. Secondly, an element which is often neglected is that constructing a road between two cities may have unintended negative consequences on the competitive position of farmers and traders in other regions. Finally, it is concluded that only if transport and transaction costs are reduced simultaneously, both consumers and farmers will benefit significantly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ford Runge, Willard Cochrane
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1992, 288 с.
Авторы, являясь высокими специалистами в области аграрной экономики, описывают процесс принятия политических решений в области сельского хозяйства США, программы развития и поддержки сельского хозяйства с анализом их воздействия на экономических агентов и окружающую среду. Книга может быть использована в курсе «Анализ государственной аграрной политики».
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