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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 14

Книги

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C DE F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Tillack, Eberhard Schulze
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 447-470 с.
The transitional countries have adopted different approaches toward privatizing and restructuring farms. This paper shows that large family farms and agribusinesses may be more efficient than small farms and that the property rights of land and asset owners in Russia and the Ukraine are restricted.

A survey conducted in Novosibirsk province reveals that 78.6 percent of the respondents working in agriculture disapproved of the selling and buying of farmland. Finally, farm and management structures in the transition countries of central and eastern Europe are outlined, and the relative dissimilarity of land distribution is assessed through the use of Gini coefficients
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Ред.: Stanley R. Johnson, Jati K. Sengupta, Erik Thorbecke
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1992, 384 с.
Книга является сборником научных работ, опубликованных в 1950-1960х годах, одного из известных экономистов - Карла Фокса. Основные темы исследования, получившие отражение в данном сборнике – анализ спроса, пространственные модели равновесия, взаимоотношение сельского хозяйства с неаграрной экономикой, эконометрическое моделирование в экономике и экономической политики в США. Под редакцией С.Джонсона, Ж.Сенгупта, Э.Торбеке.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Terhi Latvala
2002
The aim of this study is to evaluate both qualitatively and quantitatively the value of new information about and the information systems set for credence characteristics of beef. Economics of information is our theoretical framework. The quantitative approach focuses to measure the ex ante value of credence characteristics, and the method of contingent valuation is applied for this purpose. Results indicate that 59 % of Finnish consumers are willing to pay more to get information about safety and quality of beef products. Consumers are most concerned with diseases caused by food of animal origin. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are not considered as the most hazardous risk factor in food products. However, if the beef products contain GMOs used in animals, then consumers also start requiring additional information.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
2002
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Romuald I. Zalewski, Eulalia Skawicska
2002
A questionnaire method has been used to collect the empirical data on the food processing enterprises. Data were collected for 36 out of 68 enterprises having ISO 9001 / 2 (April 2000). Value chain as a modeling power of competitive advantage, determinants of quality management system efficiency, participation of knowledge and skills in formation of firm competence were discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Vasant P. Gandhi, Robin Marsh
Durban, 2003
The paper examines the impact of local institutions on development and poverty in the rural areas of India. Recent research on the role of institutions on the path of economic development indicates the importance of both "macro" and "micro" institutions including local institutions. The study finds a large number of both formal and informal local institutions in the surveyed villages, and a substantial degree of interaction of the households with the institutions. These include both formal institutions such as service cooperatives and dairy cooperatives, as well as informal institutions such as savings groups, community associations and labour groups. The study finds that apart from the standard factors included such as land, capital and labour, the presence and membership in local institutions plays a significant role in explaining the variation in household incomes and gain in capital assets over time.

Savings/ micro-credit groups, and dairy cooperatives are found to be particularly important. Further, membership in these institutions is not found to be related to high asset levels or high caste - it is often inversely so. This indicates a stronger developmental role. Recorded opinions of the households supports the findings on the impact and beneficial role of local institutions. The study confirms that institutions do matter, and that local institutions can and do make a significant contribution in helping development in the rural areas, especially so for the lower income groups.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
C.M. Yates, T. Rehman
2002
In order to respond to the current pressures on agriculture in the EU, the industry will have to go through fundamental structural change. Economic modelling provides the framework for understanding such changes. Mathematical programming is probably the most robust of all the modelling approaches notwithstanding several criticisms of the technique. Economists have long understood that profit maximisation is not the only objective of farmers. Although there are techniques to incorporate other objectives there does not exist a statistically rigorous method for estimating an appropriate objective functions. This problem also occurs at national and international levels of aggregation. This paper presents a new approach to modelling national and international production and trade through partial equilibrium and the use of a new development called positivistic mathematical programming. The nonlinear element of the objective function representing the partial equilibrium is estimated using past observations on supply, consumption and prices.

Further, the paper also presents an original parameterisation of the demand curve that allows perfect competition to be simulated within the framework of a single mathematical model. Such a methodology is an advancement over methods that are currently in use.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Stuart Corbridge
USA: Edward Arnold, 1995, 496 с.
Это сборник - ридер по проблемам экономики развития. В книгу вошли статьи известных экономистов по данной проблематике – А.Франк, А.Эскобар, А.Сен, Б.Джонсон, П.Килби, Р.Чэмберс, Р.Вейд и др. Рассматриваемые темы – развитие как концепция, изменение сельского хозяйства и развитие сельской местности, проблемы бедности в развивающихся странах, урбанизация и индустриализация, глобальная политическая экономика, новые пути в изучении экономики развития.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Bruno Henry De Frahan, Christian Tritten
2002
This paper proposes a partial equilibrium displacement model that differentiates wheat according to its end-use and country of origin to investigate the impact of alternative European trade policies on wheat supply and demand in France. Transmission, demand and supply elasticities are estimated for each class and origin of wheat. Simulation results show that rebalancing trade protection across wheat classes encourages domestic supply of high quality wheat and displaces imports from North America.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Giannis Karagiannis, Alexander Sarris
Zaragoza, 2002
In this paper we apply the technical inefficiency effect model to a set of eight different crop products (i.e., wheat, mixed arable crops, tobacco, cotton, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse horticulture) in Greek agriculture.

For each product, a panel data set covering the period 1991- 1995 is used and separate econometric results are obtained for each product. A particular set of socioeconomic and demographic variables is used to explain technical efficiency differentials among Greek farmers, including the direct subsidies given to each farmer, and the concordance of these efficiency determinants is discussed across the eight different crop products considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tim J. Coelli, Euan Fleming
Durban, 2003
Smallholder farming systems in Papua New Guinea are characterised by an integrated set of cash cropping and subsistence food cropping activities. In the Highlands provinces, the subsistence food crop sub-system is dominated by sweet potato production. Coffee dominates the cash cropping sub-system, but a limited number of food crops are also grown for cash sale. The dynamics between sub-systems can influence the scope for complementarity between, and technical efficiency of, their operations, especially in light of the seasonality of demand for household labour and management inputs within the farming system. A crucial element of these dynamic processes is diversification into commercial agricultural production, which can influence factor productivity and the efficiency of crop production where smallholders maintain a strong production base in subsistence foods.

Data are used on coffee and food crop production for 18 households in the Benabena district of Eastern Highlands Province to derive technical efficiency indices for each household over two years. A stochastic input distance function approach is used to establish whether diversification economies exist and whether specialisation in coffee, subsistence food or cash food production significantly influences technical efficiency on the sampled smallholdings.

Diversification economies are weakly evident between subsistence food production and both coffee and cash food production, but diseconomies of diversification are discerned between coffee and cash food production. A number of factors are tested for their effects on technical efficiency. Significant technical efficiency gains are made from diversification among broad cropping activities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jesus Anton, Chantal Le Mouel
2003
Analytical results in the literature suggest that counter-cyclical payments create risk-related incentives to produce even if they were "decoupled" under certainty (Hennessy, 1998). This paper develops a framework to assess the risk-related incentives to produce created by commodity programmes like the loan deficiency payments and the Counter-Cyclical Payments (CCP) in the FSRI Act. Because CCP are paid based on fixed production quantities they have a weaker risk-reducing impact than loan deficiency payments. The latter have a direct impact through the variance of the producer price distributions, while the impact of CCP is due only to the covariance between the CCP and the producer price distributions. The methodology developed by Chavas and Holt (1990) is applied to calculate the appropriate variance-covariance matrix of the truncated producer price distributions created by the FSRI in 2002. Risk premiums are computed showing that the risk related incentives created by CCP are significant and they do not disappear for levels of production that are larger than the base production on which they are paid.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Awudu I. Abdulai, Dominique Aubert
Zaragoza, 2002
This study employs both nonparametric and parametric methods to examine the influence of household expenditure and other demographic variables on household consumption of calories in Tanzania, using recent survey data. Under each estimation strategy we employ, we find significant and positive relationship between household expenditure and calorie consumption. Even with an estimation strategy that ensures consistent estimates in the presence of measurement error, the calorie-expenditure elasticity is 0.46, a finding that is consistent with the traditional view that, increases in household income will improve calorie intake and help alleviate inadequate nutrition.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Xavier Irz, David Hadley
2003
To improve the welfare of the rural poor and keep them in the countryside, the government has been spending 40% of the value of agricultural GDP on agricultural support services. But can investment make smallholder agriculture prosperous in such adverse conditions? This paper derives an answer by applying a two-output six-input stochastic translog distance function, with inefficiency effects and biased technical change to panel data for the 18 districts and the commercial sector, from 1979 to 1996. This model demonstrates that herds are the most important input, followed by draft power, land and seeds. Multilateral indices for technical change, technical efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) show that the technology level of the commercial sector is more than six times that of traditional agriculture and that the gap has been increasing, due to technological regression in traditional agriculture and modest progress in the commercial sector. Since the levels of efficiency are similar, the same pattern is repeated by the TFP indices. This result highlights the policy dilemma of the trade-off between efficiency and equity objectives.
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