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Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G HI JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Olivier Mahul
2002
The demand for hedging against price uncertainty in the presence of crop yield and revenue insurance contracts is examined for two French wheat farms. The rationale for the use of options in addition to futures is first highlighted through the characterization of the first-best hedging strategy in the expected utility framework. It is then illustrated using numerical simulations. The presence of options is shown to allow the insured producer to adopt a more speculative position on the futures market. Futures are shown to be performing, in terms of willingness to receive. Options are weakly performing when futures markets are unbiased, while they are more performing when futures markets are biased.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Channing Arndt, Peter Wobst
2003
We examine the performance of the primary school education system in Tanzania over the 1990s - a decade characterized by substantial AIDS deaths. Given the relatively robust correlation between educational attainment and productivity established in the literature in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, human capital accumulation through education forms a major component of development strategy. At the same time, AIDS poses clear threats to the goal of human capital accumulation through education. To assess performance of the primary school system, we estimate non-stationary education transition matrices using a minimum cross entropy approach at the national, sub-national, and regional levels for girls, boys, and all students. Results indicate a deterioration in primary school performance using enrollments in grade 7, the final year of primary school, as a metric. This deterioration in performance occurred despite increased real resource allocations to the public education system and positive, if only tepid, overall economic growth trends. We conclude that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has quite likely slowed human capital accumulation in Tanzania.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ma Lucila A. Lapar, Garth Holloway, Simeon K. Ehui
2003
Identifying ways to increase market participation by smallholder producers requires identifying variables that influence market access. This is usually achieved using probit estimation. An important phenomenon affecting entry decision-making is the entry decision of a "similar" household, where similarity is measured in terms of "location". When neighborhood influences are significant, it is important to allow for them in discrete decision contexts, such as probit estimation. This paper, therefore, assesses the magnitude of neighborhood influences in smallholder decisions concerning market entry. The empirical model is based on a cross-section of (110) farms situated in northern Philippines, visited (twice) in the 2000-2001 production year (a panel of 220 observations). The vehicle for analysis is a Bayesian formulation of a standard probit model, but one that allows for spatial autoregression in the decision vector. Estimation requires a Metropolis- step addition to a basic Gibbs sampling algorithm and generates useful insights concerning quantities that are important for market-access policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Stefan Bojnec, Liesbeth Dries, Johan Swinnen
Durban, 2003
This paper analyses the determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities.

There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Wallace E. Huffman
Berlin, 2000
The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the broad effects of education in agriculture and examine some of the prospects and potential for the future. Worldwide about one-half of the labor force continues to be employed in agriculture. In the low income countries which account for about 55 percent of the world’s population, the share of the labor force that is in agriculture exceeds 65 percent, but in developed countries which account for about 15 percent of the world’s population, the share of the labor force in agriculture is only 5 percent (World Bank 2000). In what are now the developed countries, the long-term increase in agricultural productivity associated with advances in knowledge has been a major factor in the long-term transformation from an agrarian to an urban-based, service-oriented society (Johnson 2000).

The essay will be organized as follows: a conceptual framework, a summary of empirical evidence, prospects for rapid changes, and conclusions.
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