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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 16

Книги

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL MN O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
David Vanzetti, Ralf Peters
2003
Proposals for agricultural trade reform put forward by the main protagonists remain far apart, with little sign of convergence. In an attempt to progress the negotiations towards a successful outcome, the chairman of the WTO Committee on Agriculture has proposed a compromise. The alternative proposals by the United States, the European Union and the WTO are analysed with the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model, a static, multi-commodity, multi-region, partial equilibrium trade model. The estimated annual global welfare gains are $26 billion, $12 billion and $17 billion respectively. Least developed countries, as a group, gain from the US proposal but are made worse off under the WTO and EU proposals. Furthermore, in the best case many individual countries experience welfare losses. However, all countries enjoy increased export revenues and tariff revenues hold up quite well under the two less stringent proposals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
John Sumelius, Zoran Grgic, Milan Mesic, Ramona Franic
Durban, 2003
The aim of this paper is to identify optional ways of preventing NO3-levels from rising within Croatian farming systems, and the implications from the viewpoint of the manager. More specifically, the purpose is to

1) Determine whether Croatian farmers exceed profit maximising levels of N-fertiliser use in maize cultivation, and its possible influence on NO3-N-levels.

2) To estimate the marginal abatement cost (MAC), at the farm level, of reducing NO3-N leaching through the following instruments: a tax on optimal N-doses, a product tax and an N-fertiliser quota and a requirement for all instruments to correspond to the same abatement level.

Based on N-response experiment from feld trial for maize N-response curves were estimated. A sample of 20 family farms was used for calculating intensity, nutrient content in manure, and the prices paid for N and obtained for maize. Profit maximising doses from the field trials were compared with the use of nutrients on farms. An effluent production function was estimated based on experiments with NO3-N contents in lysimeter water for the same treatment levels as those in the N-response experiments. The results indicate that farmers use higher than optimal levels of N-fertilisers, if the manure is fully accounted for. In this case the estimated NO3-N/l level in groundwater is 162-192 % higher than the critical level stipulated by the Nitrate Directive. Neglecting the N-content in manure shows close to profit maximising nutrient levels . At this fertlising level the estimated NO3/l is approximately 62 mg NO3/l or clearly higher that the critical level stipulated by the nitrate directive (50 mg NO3/l). Through any of the three instruments a 76% NO3-leaching reduction could be obtained. It was concluded, however, that the quota has the lowest MAC (0.92 euro/mg NO3/l), followed by the N-fertiliser tax (3.65 euro/mg NO3/l), and the product tax comes in third place (9.32 euro/mg NO3/l). Management practices that may increase yield levels, and correspondingly NO3-leaching in the short and long run, were also identified. One way to achieve a quick improvement might be a system of cross compliance, stipulating a code of good agricultural practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Vittorio Santaniello, David Zilberman, Robert Evenson
2002, 368 с.
Книга представляет собой сборник работ, представленных на конференции, организованной Международным консорциумом по исследованиям биотехнологий в сельском хозяйстве (The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research) в Равелло, Италия, 2000г. Тематика исследований является актуальной и широко обсуждаемой на мировом уровне – производство и потребление генетически-модифицированной продукции (ГМП). Основные части книги – отношения потребителя на информацию о ГМП, вопросы государственного регулирования, отношения фермеров к генетически-модифицированному сырью, изменения в промышленной организации наук и продовольственных секторах.

Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Kenneth Bailey
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1997, 296 с.
Рассматривая всю молочную продуктовую цепочку в США - от молока и йогурта до сыра, масла, мороженого, автор анализирует спрос и предложение на молочные продукты, молочные кооперативы, программы по поддержке цены на молоко и систему государственных закупок, регулирование рынка на местном и региональном уровнях, специфику международной торговли.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Ludwig H. Lauwers, Guido Van Huylenbroeck
Durban, 2003
A new method for analysing environmental efficiency, based on the materials balance, is proposed. With this method, an environmental allocative efficiency measure can be defined analogously to the more commonly used economic allocative efficiency. Nutrient surplus in pig fattening, a typical balance indicator, is used to illustrate the concept in a two input - one output case. The materials balance based efficiency analysis is elaborated using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Results are compared with those of more common, merely input or output oriented DEA approaches. A main conclusion is that, ignoring the balance feature of environmental issues such as nutrient surplus might be a main reason why traditional integral analyses of economic and environmental efficiency yield contradictory conclusions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
J. Meyer
2003
Applied econometric analyses of market integration based on price data alone have been criticised, because they neglect the role of transaction costs. To meet this objection threshold vector error correction models are used. Threshold models can account for the effects of transaction costs in price transmission without directly relying upon information about these costs, which are often unavailable. Results from threshold models that are based on two thresholds provide results that are economically more intuitive than those obtained from one threshold models. However there is no adequate econometric test for threshold significance in a two- threshold model available so far; such tests are only available for the one threshold model. In this paper a restricted two-threshold model is developed in which the significance of the thresholds can be tested. This model is therefore amenable to economic interpretation and statistical inference. This model is used to estimate market integration on the European pig market.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Alessandro Corsi, Silvia Novelli
Durban, 2003
In this paper, models for estimating the maximum price consumers are willing to pay (MPWTP) for organic beef meat, and the maximum quantity-constrained price (i.e., when buying the same quantity they bought of regular meat) consumers are willing to pay (MQCP), are presented. To this purpose, the relevant theoretical and econometric approaches are presented, based on the RUM model and on a Contingent Valuation technique.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Arega D. Alene, Rashid M. Hassan
Durban, 2003
This paper employed a robust stochastic efficiency decomposition technique that accounts for scale effects to derive the technical, allocative, and overall productive efficiency of two samples of farmers, participants and non-participants in the New Extension Program (NEP), in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia. Using data for the 2001/2002 agricultural year, we find that both groups of farmers in the two zones have considerable overall productive inefficiencies. In the wet highlands, although the participants in NEP used a superior technology and have higher technical efficiencies, their allocative efficiencies turned out to be lower than the non-participant farmers, relative to their respective technologies. However, both groups exhibit similar productive efficiencies. In the dry lands, apart from using homogeneous production technologies, the two groups do not have significantly different technical and allocative efficiencies and that they have similar productive efficiencies.

Therefore, we find no empirical evidence of a positive impact of NEP on overall productive efficiency in both agro-climatic zones. An investigation of the influence of several socioeconomic and institutional factors revealed that education, credit, previous participation in extension programs, off-farm income and the share of the leading cropping system have a positive impact on efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Takashi Yamano, T. S. Jayne
Durban, 2003
Using a two-year panel of 1,422 Kenyan households surveyed in 1997 and 2000, we measure how working age adult mortality affects rural households’ size and composition, crop production, asset levels, and off-farm income. First, the paper uses adult mortality rates from available data on an HIV-negative sample to predict the proportion of deaths observed between 1997 and 2000 due to AIDS. Next, using a difference-indifferences estimation, we measure changes in outcomes between households afflicted by adult mortality vs. those not afflicted over the three-year survey period. The effects of adult mortality are highly sensitive to the gender and position of the deceased family member in the household. Households suffering the death of the head-of-household or spouse incurred a greater-than-one person loss in household size. The death of a male head-of-household between 16 and 59 years is associated with a 68% reduction in the net value of the household’s crop production. Female head-of-household or spouse mortality causes a greater decline in cereal area cultivated, while cash crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar are most adversely affected in households incurring the death of a male head-of-household. Off-farm income is also significantly affected by the death of the male head-of-household, but not in the case of other adult members. The death of other working-age family members is partially offset by an inflow of other individuals into the family and has less dramatic effects on the households’ agricultural production, assets, and off-farm income. The effects of adult mortality are also sensitive to the household’s initial asset levels. Lastly, there is little indication that households are able to recover quickly from the effects of working-age head-of-household adult mortality; the effects on crop and non-farm incomes do not decay at least over the three-year survey interval.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Catherine Benjamin, Isabelle Piot
2002
The European Union beef market regulation is largely influenced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). With the 1992 CAP reform, there was a partial shift by the EU from product price support to a more direct form of income support by way of direct payments. For beef there was a move to direct payments on intermediate products which was essentially a direct payment for the possession of various categories of animals and these were linked to a land resource base. The Agenda 2000 reform consists in a further price decrease associated with an increase in direct payments. The objective of this paper is to assess how the behaviour of beef producers is sensitive to changes in production prices and to changes in premiums. The analysis relies on an analytical framework which allows to take into account the dynamic feature of beef production and the subsidies provided by the Common Agricultural Policy. We studys how the beef supply response is modified when various exogenous variables like prices or premiums are changed. The application focuses on the dynamics of beef supply response in the French beef sector.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Caroline Saunders, Anita Wreford
Durban, 2003
This paper focuses on the impact of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) on agricultural trade. In particular, the paper assesses the impact on New Zealand (NZ), which is highly reliant on agricultural trade, with a high percentage of its total GHG emissions are originating in the agricultural sector. The paper also analyses the impact of mitigation strategies in the European Union (EU), which has a low proportion of GHG coming from agriculture, a highly protected agriculture sector, and is a major market and competitor for NZ. Results from a partial equilibrium trade model, the LTEM, show clearly that while these mitigation strategies achieve the goal of GHG reduction, producer returns are also negatively affected. The value of these changes in emissions are then calculated, based on US$15/tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2), and producer returns adjusted for this. Although this value of CO2 goes some way towards offsetting the reduction in producer returns, it would need to be considerably greater in order to provide any significant compensation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thia Hennessy
2002
This paper examines intergenerational succession on Irish dairy farms. The factors that influence the decision to enter dairying farming are examined using a binary choice logit model. Reasons that are frequently published in the popular farming press as being an obstacle to intergenerational succession are analysed and the significance of their effect is quantified. Results show that the level of education of the heir is the most significant factor in the succession decision. Heir’s with third level education are 30% less likely to enter dairy farming than their second level only educated counterparts. The sizes of milk quota and income that are associated with high probabilities of succession are identified.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
Durban, 2003
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Werner Hediger, Bernard Lehmann
2003
In this article, we investigate welfare economic aspects of multifunctional agriculture, putting emphasis on the provision of rural environmental benefits. The formal analysis shows that the efficiency prices of agricultural and forest land include important amenity and non-use values that exhibit the character of undepletable externalities. Thus, to achieve a socially optimal land allocation these externalities must be internalised. We propose the compensation to agricultural and forest managers according to the marginal external benefit of their land, and a charge-subsidy scheme to improve rural water quality. Altogether, this is consistent with the requirement of optimal land allocation and would not cause additional market distortions. Moreover, it would leave the property right on the land and landscape benefits with the farmers, and assign the right on clean air and water to the consumers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Tristan Le Cotty, Tancrede Voituriez
2003
When public goods are joint outputs of agricultural production, there is a trade-off between agricultural and non-agricultural provision of the public good. The principle of minimal price distortion in the reform of agricultural policies has led to a theoretical recommendation that public goods, if under-provided at agricultural free market level, should be promoted through non agricultural policies instead of agricultural policies. We show that the economies of scope between the agricultural production and the joint public good play a key role in determining the optimal way of providing this latter. If the policy designed is a non- agricultural policy, the production cost of the public good is higher than with an agricultural policy. If the policy designed is an agricultural policy, the production cost is lower but generates market effects. Under the assumption of strictly positive economies of scope, we show that the optimal policy is a mix of agricultural and non-agricultural policy. We confirm this result in the two-country case, demonstrating the optimal level of agricultural support for public good provision is strictly positive and lower than in the case of one country.
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