Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Мы не берем все книги по признаку формального соответствия темам. Отбираем лучшее по качеству и релевантности. (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 338

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
Durban, 2003
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the effects of EU dairy policy reform (Agenda 2000 and milk quota abolition with and without decoupled direct income payments) on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input- output model. It was e.g. found that decoupling of direct income payments gives an extra stimulus to milk production after milk quota abolition. However, the increase in milk production is restricted by nutrient and manure policies in the Netherlands. It is also found that, although the total effect on Dutch GDP is limited, the income effects for individual industries can be large. Moreover, economy wide effects for non- agricultural industries exceed changes for agriculture.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
John Helming, Jack Peerlings
2002
A modelling system is presented and used to analyse the impact of milk quota abolishment on Dutch agriculture and economy. The modelling system consists of a regionalised, agri-environmental, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of agriculture supply in the Netherlands integrated into a mixed input-output model. It was found that abolition of the milk quota system has large impacts on milk production and livestock numbers and composition. The latter is explained by the strict mineral and manure policies in the Netherlands; an increase in the numbers of dairy cows leaves less room for other livestock. It is also found that, although the total effect on gross value added in the Dutch economy is limited, the effects for individual industries can be large.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Roberto Henke, Roberta Sardone
2002
The paper focuses on the implementation of direct aids modulation, as provided for by Regulation 1259/99. After a critical review of the most relevant questions arisen around the effectiveness and the viability of modulation, the paper presents results about its possible application in Italy. In the first part of the paper a special attention is given to the actual distribution of direct aids in Italy, to the number of farms involved and the amount of revenues realised. In the second part four different hypotheses of modulation are tested. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of modulation revenues under the four different hypotheses are compared with the financial resources allotted in Italy to the regional Rural Development Plans (RDPs). While results of modulation are, generally speaking, quite poor in terms of re-distribution of direct aids, there is a more relevant effect in terms of additional resources destined to the RDPs. However, resources are to be destined to measures that receive the highest share of resources within the RDPs. On the contrary, other measures, more genuinely addressing Rural Development and territorial issues within the RDPs, receive a much smaller amount of resources and cannot be funded through modulation. In other words, if the main objective of the modulation is that of shifting resources from the first to the second pillar of the CAP, this is only partially realised, given the mandatory destination of financial resources on measures that are substantially financed and that do not fully address the economic diversification and the development of rural areas.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thia Hennessy
2002
This paper examines intergenerational succession on Irish dairy farms. The factors that influence the decision to enter dairying farming are examined using a binary choice logit model. Reasons that are frequently published in the popular farming press as being an obstacle to intergenerational succession are analysed and the significance of their effect is quantified. Results show that the level of education of the heir is the most significant factor in the succession decision. Heir’s with third level education are 30% less likely to enter dairy farming than their second level only educated counterparts. The sizes of milk quota and income that are associated with high probabilities of succession are identified.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Roland Herrmann, Anke Moser
Zaragoza, 2003
In many industrialized countries, the grocery-retailing sector exhibits a strong and increasing market concentration. Hence, it is important to understand retail pricing for many questions related to market power in the marketing chain and to agricultural and food policies. We analyze intertemporal pricing of grocery retailers in Germany with a large set of scanner data for processed foods. In theory, food prices could be rather variable, e.g. due to fluctuating commodity prices in a competitive world, or rather rigid, e.g. due to price adjustment costs. We elaborate that retail sales are crucial and raise food price variability at the points of sale. Despite this, prices are rather rigid and often do not change for many weeks. Moreover, pricing strategies for identical brands vary strongly across retailers. Retailers seem to have differential pricing strategies and, thus, market power. This casts substantial doubt on the assumption of a competitive price transmission in the marketing channel underlying most analyses in agricultural economics.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Senhui He, Wojciech J. Florkowski, Jeffery L. Jordan
2002
This paper addresses the issue of rationality of responses in contingent valuation. We found a significant portion of respondents stated a positive willingness-to-pay for a project they perceived to be worthless. The irrational responses had a significant impact on the mean stated willingness-to-pay and the effect can not be removed by simply excluding the those observations from estimation. The dichotomous-choice elicitation format helps to mitigate the effect of the irrational responses, but can not completely solve the problem.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Jill Hobbs, William A. Kerr, James Gaisford
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 416 с.
This book offers a coherent perspective on the transition to a market-based agri-food system in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. It provides a formal analysis of the entire food chain from farm inputs to final consumers, including imports and exports, and covers all major components of the system, from food security, multinationals, and commercial law, to theoretical approaches to prices, transaction costs, and bilateral monopolies.

В книге представлен анализ перехода к основанной на рыночных условиях хозяйствования агропродовольственной системе в странах центральной и восточной Европы, СНГ. Авторами рассматривается вся продовольственная цепочка от фермера до потребителя, структура, задействованные экономические агенты, импорт и экспорт, проблемы продовольственной безопасности, роль транснациональных корпораций, процессы ценообразования, трансакционные издержки, институты.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Richard Howitt, Arnaud Reynaud
2002
In this paper we develop a dynamic data-consistent way for estimating agricultural land use choices at a disaggregate level (district-level), using more aggregate data (regional-level). The disaggregation procedure requires two steps. The first step consists in specifying and estimating a dynamic model of land use at the regionallevel. In the second step, we disaggregate outcomes of the aggregate model using maximum entropy (ME). The ME disaggregation procedure is applied to a sample of California data. The sample includes 6 districts located in Central Valley and 8 possible crops, namely: Alfalfa, Cotton, Field, Grain, Melons, Tomatoes, Vegetables and Subtropical. The disaggregation procedure enables the recovery of land use at the district-level with an out-sample prediction error of 16%. This result shows that the micro behavior, inferred from aggregate data with our disaggregation approach, seems to be consistent with observed behavior.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Hans van Meijl, Frank van Tongeren
2003
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China.s production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on the international dimension in making their decisions on biotechnology development.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Rui Huang, Lilyan E. Fulginiti, E. Wesley Peterson
Durban, 2003
A three period overlapping generations model is developed to investigate the impact of shorter life expectancy due to disease, on human capital investment decisions and income growth. This research is particularly relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa given the dramatic reduction in life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS and the potential lasting effects on growth. Our results indicate that as life expectancy shortens so does schooling inducing a lower growth rate of income. These relationships are even more pronounced for the African continent than for the rest of the world.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Wallace E. Huffman
Berlin, 2000
The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the broad effects of education in agriculture and examine some of the prospects and potential for the future. Worldwide about one-half of the labor force continues to be employed in agriculture. In the low income countries which account for about 55 percent of the world’s population, the share of the labor force that is in agriculture exceeds 65 percent, but in developed countries which account for about 15 percent of the world’s population, the share of the labor force in agriculture is only 5 percent (World Bank 2000). In what are now the developed countries, the long-term increase in agricultural productivity associated with advances in knowledge has been a major factor in the long-term transformation from an agrarian to an urban-based, service-oriented society (Johnson 2000).

The essay will be organized as follows: a conceptual framework, a summary of empirical evidence, prospects for rapid changes, and conclusions.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
E.E. Imad, Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim
Durban, 2003
This paper assesses and quantifies the consequences of world trade liberalization in agriculture on trade and food security of Sudan. Sudan, with the agricultural sector as the main sector of economy, is characterized by its small open economy, and is classified as one of the least developed countries. Thus, Sudan becomes more vulnerable to any changes in international agricultural markets. The liberalization of international agricultural trade has a great influence on Sudan's food security and on the whole economy. An extended form of a multi-market model for Sudan is developed and used for the analysis. The model embodies important characteristics of agriculture in Sudan like substitution effects and stages of production.

As agriculture is the main sector of Sudan's economy, the model is extended to explicitly integrate some of the key important macroeconomic linkages, and to establish certain feedback effects between agriculture and the macro-economy. The model simulations reveal that a higher world market price would overall lead to measurable gains in food security and agricultural trade of the country. However, when the effect of a higher cost of production is considered, the positive results are reversed. Furthermore, the results of the model simulations show that the domestic policy environment matters very much with respect to the potential impact of world trade liberalization of agriculture. The paper concludes that Sudan should reorient its national policies towards export promotion in order to benefit from the new emerging trading opportunities in world markets. However, to capture a greater benefit from the new environment in the international markets, Sudan should consider and manage carefully all factors, domestically or internationally - e.g. quality standard, loss of preference, dumping effects - that hinder its economic and trade growth.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Xavier Irz, David Hadley
2003
To improve the welfare of the rural poor and keep them in the countryside, the government has been spending 40% of the value of agricultural GDP on agricultural support services. But can investment make smallholder agriculture prosperous in such adverse conditions? This paper derives an answer by applying a two-output six-input stochastic translog distance function, with inefficiency effects and biased technical change to panel data for the 18 districts and the commercial sector, from 1979 to 1996. This model demonstrates that herds are the most important input, followed by draft power, land and seeds. Multilateral indices for technical change, technical efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) show that the technology level of the commercial sector is more than six times that of traditional agriculture and that the gap has been increasing, due to technological regression in traditional agriculture and modest progress in the commercial sector. Since the levels of efficiency are similar, the same pattern is repeated by the TFP indices. This result highlights the policy dilemma of the trade-off between efficiency and equity objectives.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
T. S. Jayne, Takashi Yamano, James Nyoro
2003
This paper addresses the potential for interlinked credit/input/output marketing arrangements for particular cash crops to promote food crop intensification. Using panel survey data from Kenya, we estimate a household fixed-effects model of fertilizer use per hectare of food crops, using an instrumental variables approach for addressing the endogeneity of participation in interlinked credit arrangements. Results indicate that households engaging in interlinked marketing programs for selected cash crops applied considerably greater fertilizer on other crops (primarily cereals) not directly purchased by the cash crop trading firm. These findings suggest that, in addition to the direct stimulus that interlinked cash crop marketing arrangements can have on small farmer incomes, these institutional arrangements may provide spillover benefits for the productivity of the farmers. other activities such as food cropping.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Nancy L. Johnson, Ruth Suarez, Mark Lundy
2003
This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document the functions that social capital performs within firms. To estimate social capital’s contribution to firm structure and performance, quantitative indicators of firm-level use of social capital are developed based on the number and strength of external relationships that firms maintain. Econometric analysis finds that firm-level returns to relationships are positive and higher than to physical or human capital. The results suggests that while firms can increase their economic performance by investing in social capital, ameliorating the effects of the market failures that lead to use of social relations for business purposes could also improve both equity and efficiency.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл