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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 338

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-12-2003
William Liefert, Zvi Lerman, Василий Якимович Узун, Дмитрий Николаевич Рылько, Bruce L. Gardner
Москва: Ин-т экономики переходного периода, 2002, 199 с.
A decade after the initial reforms of the former Soviet economy, the results in agriculture remain disappointing. Despite food price liberalization, barriers to marketing agricultural output are still present in many regions, and access to modern inputs is very limited almost everywhere. Agricultural output remains about one-third below the pre-reform levels of 1989-91. Incomes of workers employed in agriculture remain depressed. Yet significant changes have occurred. Output increases have been noted on household subsidiary plots, which have been enlarged and play an important role, especially where former collective farms are weakest. New arrangements are springing up in which input suppliers or other businesses related to agriculture are establishing vertically integrated or other contractual arrangements with agricultural producers. These arrangements are managing to supply much-needed fertilizer, chemical, and energy inputs in ways more promising than the barter arrangements that have characterized the dealings of many former collective farms and the ad hoc and unpriced ways in which owner-employees of these farms often acquire inputs for their own farming enterprises on private plots. Even without fully developed land ownership rights, it appears that rental transactions under which new operators may acquire the use of increased acreage are increasing and are beginning to be economically important. The objectives of the project are to quantify the extent to which factor market constraints have impaired the ability of Russian agriculture to function efficiently and profitably, to establish which constraints are most important in both the short and long run perspectives, and to provide the analytical knowledge needed to formulate policies to remedy obstacles and constraints. In order to consider the state of knowledge and determine the research directions in following three years the BASIS , University of Maryland and Centre AFE have hold a conference in July, 2001 in Golitzino (Golitzino-II) nearby Moscow. The proceedings of this conference are presented in this book . The book is issued in English and Russian simultaneously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
William Liefert, Bryan Lohmar, Евгения Викторовна Серова
2003
This paper examines why transition from planned to market economies in the countries of the former Soviet bloc has changed their mix and volumes of food consumption. During transition, consumption of high value products, such as meat and dairy products, has plummeted, while consumption of staple foods such as bread and potatoes has remained steady, or even increased. The paper shows that in the pre-reform planned economy, planners ‘desired’ the production and national consumption of high value (and cost) foodstuffs more than consumers. When market reform resulted in consumer prices adjusting to reflect the full cost of production, consumer demand switched from high cost foods to other goods and services. The demand- driven nature of food restructuring in these countries has implications for food security, reinforcing the argument that any food security problems are not mainly the result of inadequate aggregate supplies of agricultural products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Kim Martin Lind
2002
This working paper examines the food security policy, where food security means ensuring an adequate supply of food for hungry people. In particular, the recommendations of FAO are being used as a measuring rod against which food security policies are assessed. By means of FAO’s database a statistical analysis of all Sub-Saharan Africa countries with respect to measuring the incidence and severity of critical food shortages are carried out. Stock policies seem to have been the answer when issues of ensuring adequate supplies have surfaced. In the paper, an estimate of the costs of keeping stocks is provided, and the costs are quite staggering. Based on the statistical analysis an estimate of the number and volume of acute food shortages per year in Sub-Saharan Africa is achieved. Upon this number a much cheaper alternative to keeping stocks for security purposes is proposed. It is proposed that a financial fund is set up with the sole purpose of purchasing grains on the open market when acute food shortages occur. In order for the fund to achieve its goals it must be completely independent of politics, and the financing and replenishing of the fund must be automatic. The advantages are that a lot of costs are saved which could be used to improve food security policies in developing countries. Furthermore, the supply of food aid is done via a global fund, and is not the result of political considerations in donor (big exporting) countries. The reservations voiced by some developing countries that further liberalisations in agricultural policies in the WTO round of negotiations could jeopardise food security is answered by this fund. Liberalisations of agricultural policies may lead to lower food stocks in the big exporting countries, but the proposed financial fund does not rely on such stocks. It is found that the purchases the fund would have to conduct only comprise a small fraction of the world trade in cereals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Lips, Peter Rieder
2002
This paper discusses an approach to implement output quotas in the GTAP model which permits an endogenous adjustment of both the supplied quantity and the quota rent. Since the quota rent is interpreted as additional earnings of the factors used no change of the worldwide GTAP data base is required. Several modifications of the GTAP model and two exogenous coefficients are necessary. Considering uncertain values of one of the coefficients, systematic sensitivity analysis is applied. The abolishment of the raw milk quota in the European Union would lead to a remarkable decrease in raw milk prices in most member countries. The raw milk production increases in Denmark, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands while it declines in Greece and Portugal. In the other member countries the raw milk production changes slightly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Tim Lloyd, Steve McCorriston, Wyn Morgan, Tony Rayner
Durban, 2003
This paper is concerned with the impact of the BSE crisis in the UK and focuses on price transmission between retail and farm prices. From a theoretical perspective we show that market power has an effect on price transmission between retail and farm prices following a demand shock. The empirical results suggest that the impact of a food scare on farm prices to be more than double that of retail prices, the direction of this effect being consistent with the impact of oligopoly dominating the effect (if any) of oligopsony.

However, important in assessing the full impact of a food scare is the ability of consumers to switch into substitute products. This is also evident following the BSE crisis with the availability of substitutes contributing significantly to the overall impact on price adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Hans Lofgren, Sherman Robinson, James Thurlow
2003
Zambia.s strong dependence on copper exports has suppressed other tradables sectors, indicative of a Dutch disease phenomenon. The current copper crisis will have strong economic effects, possibly reversing such Dutch disease effects. We use a computable general equilibrium model built around a 1995 social accounting matrix to simulate the short- and long-run effects of two scenarios that reflect the current crisis, a 20 percent reduction in world copper prices and a complete collapse of copper mining. Compared to the short run, the long run is characterized by more flexibility in production technology and capital allocation. Both scenarios require a significant reduction in the .non-copper. trade deficit, absorption, and household consumption. The strongest effects occur under the short-run mining-collapse scenario where household consumption falls by 13 percent and the real exchange rate depreciates by 42 percent. In the long run, these effects are approximately half as strong. The short- and long-run impacts of a 20 percent fall in world copper prices include a cut in household consumption by 4-5 percent and real depreciation by 7-10 percent. For all scenarios, the welfare losses for rural households are below the national average. Given that per-capita consumption is lower in rural areas, inequality falls. This distributional outcome is driven by the fact that the agro-food-fiber complex, which produces outputs that are relatively tradable, expands relative to the rest of the economy in terms of value-added, employment, and exports, suggesting that the copper crisis may induce an agricultural renaissance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Hermann Lotze, Steffen Noleppa
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 429-443 с.
The paper discusses the general need for institutional innovation in the Russian Federation. An attempt to establish a Market Information System for the agro-food sector in Tula Oblast is taken as an example illustrating specific implementation problems. From the experience gained in this case, the authors derive some recommendations for improving institutional change in the process of transition. Important issues here are the adoption of a more general approach towards human resource development, the scheduling of longer time horizons in support projects, and improved vertical and horizontal co-ordination within the institutional network.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jens-Peter Loy
2002
The paper aims at analyzing the potentials for reducing income risk and income variation for slaughter hog producers in Germany and Holland by participating at futures markets in Amsterdam or Hannover. The relative market and hedging efficiency for the Amsterdam stock exchange markets is tested and the optimal hedge ratio is derived for minimizing risk and variance of slaughter hog gross margins (income). Relative market efficiency and a significant impact of hedging on income risk and variance can not be rejected. The results show that the optimal hedge ratio is smaller for variance compared to risk minimizing hedging strategy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Jens-Peter Loy, Robert D. Weaver
Durban, 2003
Retail pricing strategies incorporate promotions, sales, and rigidities. A number of models have been proposed in particular to explain the occurrence of sales. Focussing on the market for fresh foods the model by Varian and the loss leader argument seem to be intuitively best fitting to the conditions in the fresh food market.

From these models we derive several hypotheses that are tested for a unique data set of the German fresh food retail market. The data set consists of weekly prices for ten food items in 131 grocery shops over the period from 1995 to 2000. Following Varian sales should lead to reduced expenditures, while the loss leader argument assumes that consumers are lured into the shop by promotional sales which are covered by higher prices for other products. The results indicate that expenditures decrease with the number of sales in the short run but this effect is outweighed by a dynamic price adjustment thereafter.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jens-Peter Loy, Christoph Weiss
2002
Only a few studies have analysed staggering and synchronisation in pricing behaviour of multi-product firms. These studies used low-frequency data in an environment of high rates of inflation. This paper investigates staggering and synchronisation of weekly prices for ten food products in 131 grocery stores in Germany over the period from May 1995 to December 2000 (296 weeks). Different forms of staggering and synchronisation (across-store synchronisation, within type-of-store synchronisation, within retailer synchronisation or across-product synchronisation) have been analysed. None of these forms of synchronisation is supported empirically however. In contrast, perfect staggering can only be rejected in very few cases.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 9-35 с.
Economic reforms have induced different output and productivity changes in Russia, China and the transition countries of Eastern Europe. The main objective of this paper is to analyze what has caused these differences in performance. We discuss how initial conditions and reform policy choices affect changes in property rights, production organization, terms of trade, and the liberalization of the economy. We analyze how these, in turn, have affected economic performance.

The hypotheses are tested by quantitative analysis. We conclude that it is a combination of both initial conditions and reform policy choices which has caused the differences in performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Olivier Mahul
2002
The demand for hedging against price uncertainty in the presence of crop yield and revenue insurance contracts is examined for two French wheat farms. The rationale for the use of options in addition to futures is first highlighted through the characterization of the first-best hedging strategy in the expected utility framework. It is then illustrated using numerical simulations. The presence of options is shown to allow the insured producer to adopt a more speculative position on the futures market. Futures are shown to be performing, in terms of willingness to receive. Options are weakly performing when futures markets are unbiased, while they are more performing when futures markets are biased.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Riitta Maijala, Jukka Peltola
Zaragoza, 2002
When joining the EU, Finland was granted a permission to run its own food safety policy concerning Salmonella. The policy is called Finnish Salmonella Control Program (FSCP) and it covers the main animal production lines: pork, beef, poultry, and also the products thereof e.g. meat and eggs. By committing to follow an EU Commission approved national program Finland received so called additional guarantees from the EU. These guarantees allow it to require respective salmonella protection levels from similar products imported to the country. In order to continue the program its economic efficiency has to be thoroughly evaluated.

The objective of FCSP is that no more than 1 % of the animals and meat should be contaminated with Salmonella at the national level. Respectively, at the abattoir or meat cutting plant level the goal is 5 % . These quite strict objectives were reached well in 1995-2001. The industry is responsible for running the program in practice. National authorities have their emphasis in coordination, collecting of data and supervision. The costs of the program are almost fully carried by the industry. This paper evaluates the efficiency and viability of FSCP as a whole. It can be concluded, that money used running the program is well-spent: health benefits produced, estimated either using a cost-of-illness type of calculations or a willingness-to-pay measure from a consumer survey are many times larger than the costs of the program. In the end it can be concluded that FSCP is a good example of economically viable tool for sustaining public health.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Wilbur Maki, Richard Lichty
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2000, 512 с.
Учебник по региональной экономике рассматривает следующие темы: региональное развитие, миграция и прогнозирование. Затрагивается проблематика трудностей в определении факторов экономического роста в регионе, взаимозависимость районов периферии и больших городов. Книга будет полезна для студентов уровня бакалавриата и магистратуры, изучающих экономику, региональную экономику, общественный сектор и политику, экономику использования природных ресурсов и окружающей среды.