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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 338

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
David M.G. Newbery
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2000, 484 с.
Network utilities, such as electricity, telephones, and gas, are public utilities that require a fixed network to deliver their services. Because consumers have no choice of network, they risk exploitation by network owners. Once invested, however, a network's capital is sunk, and the bargaining advantage shifts from investor to consumer. The investor, fearing expropriation, may be reluctant to invest. The tension between consumer and investor can be side-stepped by state ownership. Alternatively, private ownership and consumers' political power can be reconciled through regulation. Either way, network utilities operate under terms set by the state.

David Newbery argues that price-setting rules comprise only part of the policy agenda. Network utilities pose special problems of ownership and regulation. He discusses the history of ownership and regulation, privatization, and theories of regulation. Examining three network utilities in detail--telecoms, electricity, and gas--he contrasts the regulatory approaches of Britain and the United States. He also looks at liberalization in a variety of other countries.

History shows that the mature forms of regulatory institutions are remarkably similar under both public and private ownership. This raises obvious questions such as: Will the forces that caused convergence to regulated vertical integration in the past reassert themselves? Can the benefits of competition be protected against the pressure to reintegrate? Will different utilities differ in their form and structure? A full understanding of the forces shaping regulatory institutions is necessary to answer these important questions.

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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Huan Niemi
2002
The EU dairy sector will be one of the most sensitive sectors to be affected by the outcome of the on-going negotiations for the new WTO round for agriculture. Nevertheless, if the Next WTO Round is going to be along the same lines as the Uruguay Round, the EU may be able to stay within the WTO commitments for export subsidy in the dairy sector without further reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy. Certainly, some minor reforms are needed to relieve the binding commitments for cheese and other milk products. The upcoming reform in the dairy sector under Agenda 2000 starting from year 2005 may help in reforming the dairy sector for the new round. In contrast, a steeper reduction in the export subsidy commitments compared to the Uruguay Round may cause problems for cheese and other milk products because the majority of exports in these products will have to be exported without any export subsidy. After enlargement, in particular with a steeper reduction formula, the EU may face troubles in the categories of butter, skim milk powder, cheese, and other milk products. The reforms under Agenda 2000 may not be sufficient because the difference between the EU internal market price and world market price is still too high for EU dairy products to allow unsubsidised exports to the world market. The EU internal market will have to absorb the dairy products intended for the export market. Consequently, the EU internal market for dairy products will be under pressure for further price reduction, and the EU world market share in dairy products will shrink.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
2003
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Rosanna Nistico, Giovanni Anania
Durban, 2003
Most food products can be classified as ‘credence’ goods and regulations exist to provide consumers with a substitute for the lacking information and trust. The paper presents an analysis of the decisions of producers and consumers about a ‘credence’ good in three institutional scenarios, which reflect different levels of credibility of the regulation.

The first scenario is a reference scenario in which the regulation is fully credible. In the second case considered there is no regulation, or, if there is, it is totally ineffective. In the third scenario a regulation only partially credible provides consumers with an imperfect substitute for the information and trust they lack. Some of the producers of ‘low’ quality goods share with the producers of .high. quality goods an interest in the introduction of a regulation as long as this is not fully credible. In addition, it may be the case that even producers of ’low’ quality goods who know they will not be able to sell their products labeling them as being of ‘high’ quality may have an interest in supporting a not fully credible regulation. Finally, rather than having producers of ‘low’ quality goods ‘block’ the introduction of a fully credible regulation, producers of ‘high’ quality goods are better off when a compromise is reached which leads to the approval of an imperfect regulation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2002
The paper explores the question of diversity in agricultural practice as related to bio-diversity and landscape appearance. It starts with the observation that, in the past, diverse natural conditions have considerably impacted on adapted modes of agricultural production, more than today, and that previously performed farm practices were strongly affiliated with specific natural conditions. These practices positively contributed to a modified, diverse and man-made environment which is frequently considered a beautiful landscape. This has changed dramatically. Particularly, where the European countryside is regarded a natural heritage, today, the public seems to be worried about modern farm practices. After the adoption of modern techniques, farmers prefer to apply unified production technologies and tend to set-up uniform farm structures and product mixes as well as land cultivation practices based on purchased inputs. Farm operations equalise natural conditions and contribute to uniform land rents. However, a rising public concern for the preservation of bio-diversity is asking for change and new measures. Additional to regulations on farm practices governments seek to compensate farmers for nature preservation and production of bio-diversity. Presuming that high biodiversity is dependent on diversity in agricultural practice and landscape appearance due to preserved natural conditions, the paper develops a model that links payments to diversity in farm practice and natural conditions. The applied model is landscape-oriented and classifies farm behaviour according to agronomic conditions. A reference system for a unified technology is presented and implications for payments are discussed using a behavioural approach. This behavioural approach focuses on regional dynamics in natural condition as major determinants for bio-diversity and payments as determinants for farm practices. Payments are directed to re-establish diversity in farm practices, counteract current technology dominance, and assure a new exposure to nature, though only partly. Diversity becomes prevalent; notably according to an economic calculus of costs and benefits from taxpayers' point of view.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-04-2005
S. O'Donnell, Gerhard Kunz
Москва: Прогресс, 1981, 495 с.
Книга представляет собой фундаментальное исследование организации управления, специализации управленческих функций, их содержания, а также процедур, связанных с осуществлением этих функций. Важное место уделяется рассмотрению концепций, определяющих развитие современной теории управления в США, а именно теории систем и ситуационной теории, а также методов управления, разработанных на их основе.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Yasuo Ohe
2002
Understanding the demand profile of rural tourism is a necessary condition for the successful diversification of any rural economy. Although descriptive analyses have been conducted on this issue, a more generalized framework is required that allows us to explore economic analyses. This paper evaluates the leisure behavior of households that have a preference for rural tourism in Japan. First, we give conceptual consideration to the notion that leisure behavior should be regarded as a form of a home production and explain that households that undertake rural tourism have undergone an upward shift in the home production function to realize a higher utility level. We propose that a preference for rural recreation causes this shift by improving the efficiency of the home production of leisure. Second, as an actual behavior of rural tourism, the characteristics of visitors to pick-your-own farms were statistically tested using data from a nation-wide survey on tourism. Finally, the rural preference function was estimated. The results revealed that the profile of households showing a preference for rural tourism demonstrated both up-market and niche market characteristics, which mirrored findings in European countries emphasizing the importance of a higher academic background, stronger orientation towards outdoor recreation, and greater discrimination with respect to the quality of services and goods received. Preference for rural recreation can be enhanced through the provision of authentic, high quality service and goods and the preservation of the rural environment. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for a farm policy that integrates both agricultural and rural measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Shunji Oniki
2003
As modern agricultural growth has been attained through increasing use of material input, it is discussed whether agricultural growth can be sustained in the long run within the limit of environmental tolerance. In order to investigate the possibility of the long-run growth, this study applies aghion and howitt's schumpeterian growth model, and conducts empirical analyses using rice production panel data from eight regions in japan for the period 1984 to 1999. Estimation of the translog cost function, which incorporates quality improvement effects, as well as the growth accounting estimation, reveals that the growth with quality improvement occurs, as the growth with increasing material input is stagnant. The quality-based innovation does not lead to increases in chemical input, implying the shift in innovation plays a key role in attaining sustainable development, which also explains a greater increase in pollution at the early stage of development and its slowing down. Sustainable growth can be attained through quality innovation even if environmental regulations are tightened.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Keijiro Otsuka
Berlin, 2000
Based on the recently completed project on land tenure and the management of land and trees in Asia and Africa (Otsuka and Place 2000), this article attempts to identify the process by which population pressure leads to the individualization of land rights and its consequences on the management of land and trees. A particular focus will be placed on the development of agroforestry systems growing commercial trees, such as cocoa, coffee, cinnamon, and rubber, which are becoming important farming systems in agriculturally marginal areas, where people are particularly poor and natural forests have been degraded rapidly (Otsuka 2000).

The conceptual framework is discussed in the next section, which is followed by the examination of the results of case studies on the management of trees and cropland. Policy implications of this study are discussed in the final section.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Emily A. Ouma, Gideon A. Obare, Steven J. Staal
Durban, 2003
This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle keeping households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio- economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of livestock, these non - market functions are often ignored since they are difficult to value, yet they may contribute to a better understanding of livestock production systems. The use of contingent valuation method is employed in this study to elicit these non-market values. Econometric estimations are then used to assess the factors influencing the non - market benefits function. The results indicate that these benefits are highly valued by cattle keepers and comprise approximately 20% of the animal.s total value across the three systems. They are influenced by various production system and household related factors. Implications for policy are drawn.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2008
Ariel Pakes, Ulrich Doraszelski
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2007, cерия "Handbooks in Economics", 3
This paper reviews a framework for numerically analyzing dynamic interactions in imperfectly competitive industries. The framework dates back to Ericson and Pakes [1995. Review of Economic Studies 62, 53–82], but it is based on equilibrium notions that had been available for some time before, and it has been extended in many ways by different authors since. The framework requires as input a set of primitives which describe the institutional structure in the industry to be analyzed. The framework outputs profits and policies for every incumbent and potential entrant at each possible state of the industry.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
Durban, 2003
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Guirao Perez, Cano Fernandez, Lopez M.I. Yurda, Rodriguez Donate
2002
In this paper we measure the impact of an individual’s socioeconomic conditions on the decision to consume wine in a traditionally wine-producing area. Based on the data obtained in an exhaustive survey on wine consumption and through discrete choice models, we assess the changes which come about in the decisions to consume the different types of wine under consideration, and we obtain the most relevant distinctive and differentiated characteristics for each one of them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
E. Wesley Peterson
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2001, 416 с.
Учебник по анализу политики в области сельского хозяйства, природных ресурсов и окружающей среды предназначен для студентов последнего года обучения в бакалавриате и начального уровня обучения в магистратуре. Студентам предлагается система знаний по анализу политики в данных областях, описываются аналитические методы для оценки эффекта от политики (метод выгод и издержек, частичного равновесия, моделирование всей экономики) с примерами из практики, рассматривается международный аспект.
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