Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 18
STRATEGIES TO INCREASE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND REDUCE LAND DEGRADATION: EVIDENCE FROM UGANDA / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
Consumer Willingness to Pay for Irradiated Beef /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Arsen Poghosyan, John P. Nichols, Rodolfo M. Nayga
This study examines consumer willingness to pay for irradiated beef products. About 58 percent of the respondents are willing to pay a premium for irradiated beef. An ordered probit with sample selection model was estimated. Standard errors of the marginal effects of the ordered probit model were estimated using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that females and those who think that improper handling contributes to food poisoning are more likely to pay a premium of 50 cents per pound of irradiated beef than others. Those who trust the irradiation technology are also more likely to pay a premium of between 5 to 25 cents per pound for irradiated beef. Supply chain implications are discussed.
Evaluating EU Agricultural Policy Reform Using the EU WTO Model /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Jim Stout, Susan Leetmaa, Anne Normile
This paper provides an overview of the European Union component of the recently developed ERS/Penn State WTO Model. The model is a multi-region, multi-commodity partial equilibrium trade model which allows the user to simulate the effects of reducing or eliminating tariffs and TRQs, export subsidies, and domestic support policies. The paper describes how the model captures the important agricultural policies of the EU, and presents results from model simulations of domestic support liberalization, export subsidy elimination, and tariff removal.