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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 42

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2003
The study is devoted to the measurement of productivity and efficiency change in Chinese farming sector over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Within an output distance function framework, an index of total factor productivity is decomposed into technical and allocative efficiency, technical change, and scale effects. We estimate a parametric output distance function using individual farm household data from the province Zhejiang over the period 1986-2000. Results indicate that during the more market-oriented reform period in the mid 1980s productivity and technical efficiency increased while allocative efficiency remain constant. However, productivity growth and technical efficiency slow in the mid 1990s when market orientation of the reforms was reduced and self-sufficiency as a major goal reappeared on the political agenda.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Cynthia Donovan, Linda Bailey, Edson Mpyisi, Michael Weber
Durban, 2003
In Rwanda for the past decade, rural households have lived with civil unrest and genocide, changing land laws, large population flows both into and out of the country, and climatic threats with droughts and floods. The illness and untimely death of prime age adults from a number of health problems (increasingly HIV/AIDS) adds to the stress of these households and has lasting effects on the ability of households to survive. In this research, the authors use household and member level survey data to increase understanding about what is happening in households with such shocks and how they may be different from other Rwandan rural households.

This research finds that households affected by adult illness and death strive to maintain their agricultural production, and work to avoid selling assets, yet some households appear to be in a downward spiral, losing assets and income earning potential. They rely heavily on social networks for labor and skills, but clearly these networks will be stretched beyond their means in any continuing epidemics. Female-headed households in particular struggle to find labor with neighbors or work more themselves. If special programs are developed for the affected families, focusing on increasing land and labor productivity fits into their own strategies. Since households with prime age death and disease appear to be similar to other Rwandan households in the poorest two quintiles, such programs would be beneficial to rural households in general, and possibly strengthen social networks through generalized agricultural and income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Pierre Dupraz, Isabel Vanslembrouck, Francois Bonnieux, Guido Van Huylenbroeck
2002
This paper examines the factors influencing farmers' participation in several agri-environmental schemes. A multinominal logit model is used to separate between participating and nonparticipating farmers. In addition this model allows to predict farmers participation in one measure as well as in different measures simultaneously. Data stems from a survey conducted in eight European countries and includes a description of both farmer and farm characteristics. Three categories of schemes have been analysed: landscape maintenance, biodiversity protection and restriction of intensive farming practices. The combination of these three types of schemes provides eight possible packages which can be selected by eligible farmers.

The multinominal logit model shows the importance of both farm and farmer as well as attitudinal characteristics on the participation in different combinations of schemes. For instance, the environmental concern favours landscape maintenance and biodiversity protection as well as their combinations with schemes requiring restrictions of intensive practices. However, it has a negative effect on the single participation in schemes requiring restrictions of intensive practices only. Our analysis confirms a number of previous findings. In addition, it shows the importance for policy makers to take into account that farmers have the opportunity to enter several schemes simultaneously. Indeed, due to cost complementarities, joint participation provides both private and public benefits.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jay Fabiosa, John C. Beghin, Stephane de Cara, Cheng Fang, Murat Isik, Holger Matthey
2003
Using a partial equilibrium model of world agriculture, we investigate the multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortion of world agricultural markets. These distortions have significant terms-of-trade effects. World trade is also significantly impacted by both types of distortions. Trade expansion is substantial for most commodities, especially dairy, meats, and vegetable oils. Net agricultural and food exporters (Brazil, Australia, and Argentina) emerge with expanded exports; whereas net importing countries with limited distortions before liberalization are penalized by higher world markets prices and reduced imports. The US gains significant export shares in livestock products and imports more dairy products. Without protection and domestic subsidies, the EU loses many of its livestock and dairy export markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
G.R. Griffith, R.J. Farquharson, S.A. Barwick, R.G. Banks, W.E. Holmes
2003
This study aimed at estimating the costs and benefits of all beef cattle genetic improvement activity, across Australia, over the period 1970 to the present. The total cumulative Present Value (PV) of investments by industry, government and other agencies into selection, crossbreeding and grading up since 1963, and of imported genetics, was estimated to be $340m (in $2001 at a 7% discount rate). Using a suite of genetic evaluation models, farming systems models and an industry-level model, the cumulative PV of industry returns were estimated. Within-breed selection generated $944m; crossbreeding in southern Australia $255m; changing breed composition in southern Australia $62m; and changing breed composition in northern Australia $8.1bn. The benefit/cost ratio for this investment was 28:1 over the last 30 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Kathrin Happe, Alfons Balmann
Durban, 2003
The paper analyses various forms of direct payments using the spatial and dynamic model AgriPoliS. In AgriPoliS farms are represented as agents which act and interact individually. This allows for endogenous structural change. The model is fitted to the agricultural region 'Hohenlohe' in Baden-Württemberg which is characterised by intensive livestock farming. The policy simulations show that the fixing of a single income payment and coupling it to the farming of land . as it has been proposed by the EU Commission in the mid- term review does not have significant effects on structural change, competitiveness, and income as compared to the current Agenda 2000 policy. In order to reach a significant and lasting effect on the competitiveness of agriculture, a further decoupling of payments would be necessary, in which direct payments would be completely decoupled from land and farming. Direct payments should rather be offered to farmers or farms, independent of whether or not farming is continued. Furthermore, area payments should be decreased to an extent which is just necessary to maintain certain land management standards. Such a policy would also break with the effect that a large part of subsidies and direct payments is transferred to the land owners rather than to the farmers. It is especially the farms with a growth potential and a high share of leased land which would benefit from such a policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Renee Kim, Milton Boyd
2002
Country of origin labeling and brand labeling play important roles in affecting purchasing behavior of buyers in the Korean beef supply chain. This paper presents a model which explain differences in the attitudes and purchase behaviors of three marketing groups regarding country of origin and other important quality attributes. The results show some of the diversity of buyers’ attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay for different country of origin and brand of foreign packers in three marketing groups.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Laure Latruffe, Kelvin Balcombe, Katarzyna Zawalinska, Sophia Moissey Davidova
Durban, 2003
The technical and scale efficiency of Polish farms is analysed, using Data Envelopment Analysis. Efficiency differences are measured according to farm specialisation, in crop or livestock, at two points in time during transition, 1996 and 2000. The statistical variability of efficiency estimates is investigated. The efficiency results are reviewed in the light of confidence intervals provided by bootstrapping and of a summary measure introduced in this study ‘the coefficient of separation’. The inference analysis suggests that farms might be less efficient than revealed by the point estimates alone, and that they might not be clearly different from each other.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Warren Lee, Michael Boehlje, Will Murray, Aaron Nelson
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1988, 480 с.
Explains the principles of agricultural finance, financial management of a farm business, and financial markets and agricultural credit institution.

Учебник по финансам в сельском хозяйстве. Рассматриваются принципы сельскохозяйственных финансов, финансовый менеджмент сельскохозяйственным предприятием, финансовые рынки и институт сельскохозяйственного кредита.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Steven J. Staal, Dannie Romney, Isabelle Baltenweck, Michael Waithaka
Durban, 2003
Although soil fertility is recognized as a primary constraint to agricultural production in developing countries, use of fertilizer in Sub-Saharan Africa is declining. Smallholder farmers still rely heavily on livestock manure for soil fertility management. To explore the determinants of soil fertility management practices, including both the use of cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, data are used from a sample of 3,330 geo-referenced farm households across Central and Western Kenya. A bivariate probit model is applied to jointly examine the use of the two technologies. Particular attention is given to measures of location related to market access and agroclimate, which in the adoption literature have typically been addressed using crude proxies. To avoid such proxies, GIS-derived variables are integrated into the household decision model. Their use also allows the spatial prediction of uptake based on parameter estimates. The results show clearly the derived-demand nature of soil fertility services, based on markets for farm outputs. They also illustrate that supply of manure for soil fertility amendments is conditioned by demand for livestock products, especially milk. The integration of GIS-derived variables is shown to better estimate the effects of location than the usual measures employed, and offers scope to wider use in technology adoption research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
C. Robert Taylor, Bruce Beattie
Florida: Krieger, 1993, 258 с.
Учебник рассматривает микроэкономические аспекты работы фирмы. Является базовым для чтения курса «Экономика производства» для магистров и докторантов первого года обучения. Основные рассматриваемые темы – технические аспекты производственного процесса, производство с одним переменным фактором, производство с двумя переменными факторами, эластичность производства, один продукт-n-переменных факторов, экономические аспекты производства – анализ со стороны ресурсов, случай при спросе на один ресурс и на несколько ресурсов одновременно, выпуск продукции, функции дохода и издержек, производство при различном ассортименте выпуска.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
2002
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).
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