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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 38

Авторы:
все А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K LM N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Arjan Ruijs, Caspar Schweigman, Clemens Lutz
2003
Reductions in transport and transaction costs are expected to have a major effect on the functioning of food markets in developing countries. For many developing countries, this is a relevant issue as it may have important consequences for the food markets in urban and rural deficit areas. A partial equilibrium model is presented to analyze the effects of reduced costs on cereal price formation, inter-regional cereal trade, and farmers' and traders' storage strategies for the case of Burkina Faso. Our results show that the high expectations with regard to the direct effects of cost reductions on food prices and food availability require some nuance. First, the effects of even a huge reduction of transport costs only will be small. Secondly, an element which is often neglected is that constructing a road between two cities may have unintended negative consequences on the competitive position of farmers and traders in other regions. Finally, it is concluded that only if transport and transaction costs are reduced simultaneously, both consumers and farmers will benefit significantly.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Gerald Schluter, Chinkook Lee
Durban, 2003
Rapid developments in E-commerce can bring efficiency in the food market system by cutting transaction costs. However, it can also bring a battleground between developed and developing countries and also within developed countries because the New Economy emphasizes knowledge-based labor practices and low-skilled workers of trading nations compete for a shrinking need for their services. An Input-Output model is used to examine the effects on high-skilled and low-skilled worker demand, particularly in food and agriculture. The food and agriculture industries are significant employers of low-skilled labor. Food and agriculture trade has reduced low-skilled labor demand in the United States.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jim Stout, Susan Leetmaa, Anne Normile
2002
This paper provides an overview of the European Union component of the recently developed ERS/Penn State WTO Model. The model is a multi-region, multi-commodity partial equilibrium trade model which allows the user to simulate the effects of reducing or eliminating tariffs and TRQs, export subsidies, and domestic support policies. The paper describes how the model captures the important agricultural policies of the EU, and presents results from model simulations of domestic support liberalization, export subsidy elimination, and tariff removal.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Ran Tao, Mingxing Liu, Qi Zhang
Durban, 2003
This paper places the problem of Chinese rural taxation in the context of government regulation and tries to present an integrated theoretical framework of rural development in China in the past two decades. Our theoretical framework can reconcile the stylized facts that the average level of rural taxation relative to rural net income after the 1990s did not increase very fast, but rural taxation became a very serious problem in this period. We found that this is in large part due to the increase of rural income disparity after 1990s and the uneven tax and fee distribution among different income groups. We argue that differentiated enforcement of the government regulations such as grain procurement and birth control play an important role in the rural taxation problem, and more generally, the problem of expanding local government size and rising rural income disparity. The empirical findings do support our hypothesis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
2003
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
Jean Tirole, Jean-Jacques Laffont
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1993, 705 с.
More then just a textbook, A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation will guide economists' research on regulation for years to come. It makes a difficult and large literature of the new regulatory economics accessible to the average graduate student, while offering insights into the theoretical ideas and stratagems not available elsewhere. Based on their pathbreaking work in the application of principal-agent theory to questions of regulation, Laffont and Tirole develop a synthetic approach, with a particular, though not exclusive, focus on the regulation of natural monopolies such as military contractors, utility companies, and transportation authorities.

The book's clear and logical organization begins with an introduction that summarizes regulatory practices, recounts the history of thought that led to the emergence of the new regulatory economics, sets up the basic structure of the model, and previews the economic questions tackled in the next seventeen chapters. The structure of the model developed in the introductory chapter remains the same throughout subsequent chapters, ensuring both stability and consistency. The concluding chapter discusses important areas for future work in regulatory economics.

Each chapter opens with a discussion of the economic issues, an informal description of the applicable model, and an overview of the results and intuition. It then develops the formal analysis, including sufficient explanations for those with little training in information economics or game theory. Bibliographic notes provide a historical perspective of developments in the area and a description of complementary research. Detailed proofs are given of all major conclusions, making the book valuable as a source of modern research techniques. There is a large set of review problems at the end of the book.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Donald Uchtmann, J.W. Looney
New York: McGraw Hill College Div, 1993, 571 с.
Учебник по основам, принципам законодательства по сельскому хозяйству.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Manfred Zeller, Manohar Sharma, Carla Henry, Cecile Lapenu
Zaragoza, 2003
Many development projects seek to reach the poorest in the provision of agricultural inputs, extension, credit, education, and many other services. However, low-cost and reliable methods for assessing whether a project reaches the poor are lacking at present.

In this paper, we present an operational method that was designed during a two-year research project from 1999-2001 with the support of an international donor- coordination office. The objective of the research was to develop and test a new method that could be later used by development practitioners to assess the poverty level of beneficiaries of development projects that target the poor in relation to the general population in the intervention area. The method constructs a poverty index using principle component analysis, and is based on a range of indicators that describes different dimensions of poverty and for which credible information can be quickly and inexpensively obtained. To ensure the method’s usefulness to a wide number of countries and projects, the method was tested in collaboration in rural and urban areas in four countries: Nicaragua (urban and rural), Kenya (urban and rural), Madagascar (rural), and India (rural). We present results from these studies. We conclude that the method has a promising potential for monitoring and evaluation purposes of development organizations. Since 2001, the method has been used in over 20 project assessments.
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