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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 338

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Ayalneh Bogale, Konrad Hagedorn, Benedikt Korf
Durban, 2003
This paper seeks to address the question: why does poverty persist in rural Ethiopia? We argue that it is largely a lack of entitlements to fundamental livelihood assets which urges poor rural farmers into livelihood diversification to make a living. We base our findings on empirical work, which is based on information gathered from a three-round survey of 149 rural households in Ethiopia during 1999/2000 cropping season. The FGT poverty index is employed to examine the extent and severity of rural poverty and reveals that nearly 40% of the sample households live below poverty line with average poverty gap of 0.047. The binary logit estimates shed light on factors behind the persistence of poverty and indicates that rural poverty is strongly linked to entitlement failures to crucial assets such as land, human capital and oxen. The study also reveals that poor households attempt to smooth their consumption and income through livelihood diversification, among which petty trading, charcoal making and fuelwood gathering for sale, brewing and
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Silke Boger, Volker Beckmann
Durban, 2003
The paper investigates theoretically and empirically the role of courts for contract enforcement in transition agriculture. In a survey of 306 Polish hog farmers conducted in 1999, only 38.5% of them reported to believe that they could use courts to enforce contracts with their most important customer. Furthermore, those who believe the legal system could be used would accept significant financial losses before taking action.

We develop a theoretical model, based on the costs and benefits of court enforcement, which captures the boundary between contracts to be regarded as "enforceable" and "not-enforceable" and, simultaneously, the threshold of taking legal action. The empirical analysis strongly supports our model: (1) the farmers. responds can be explained by cost-benefit calculations regarding the use of courts, (2) the legal "enforceability" of contracts depends not only on the efficiency of the legal system, but also on the attributes of the transaction, the contracts and the relationship between buyer and seller, and (3) the threshold of taking legal action is significantly influenced by indirect costs of court enforcement, such as the disruption of a valuable relationship, and by the availability of alternative enforcement mechanisms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Peter Bogetoft, Kurt Nielsen
Durban, 2003
This paper discuss the design of multidimensional yardstick based procurement auction. The suggested design combines Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based yardstick schemes with the multidimensional score auction. The principal select a single winner to perform a project, characterized by a multidimensional vector. The design is especially useful when there are uncertainty about the underlying common cost structure as well as the principal’s valuation function. Potential applications in natural resource management is provided.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Stefan Bojnec, Liesbeth Dries, Johan Swinnen
Durban, 2003
This paper analyses the determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities.

There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Ray Bollman, John Bryden
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 480 с.
The book consists of 30 chapters divided into seven parts. Seven chapters are reports of international comparative analyses prepared for the OECD Rural Development Programme. Another group of chapters focuses on retaining and retraining youth to stay in rural areas. Other issues addressed include lifestyle and residential choice, rural enterprises, policies to stimulate employment, the role of agriculture, and alternative niches including tourism and using the information highway. Case study material is drawn from several countries, including the USA, Canada, UK, Sweden and Finland. The book presents a timely review of an important subject that will interest a wide range of academics and policy makers in rural studies, whether from the perspective of economics, geography, sociology or planning.

Книга является сборником исследовательских работ по тематике развития сельской местности, являющейся актуальной областью исследования и применения различных мер политики в развитых странах. В центре исследований – занятость в сельской местности. Работы были представлены на конференции канадского фонда «Реструктуризация в сельской местности» в 1995 году, Квебек, Канада. Под редакцией Р.Болман, Д.Брайден
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
Robert Bork
New York: Free Press, 1993, 479 с.
Книга посвящена описанию кризисного состояния антимонопольного регулирования (преимущественного в Соединенных Штатах) и состоит из трех частей. В первой части рассматриваются теоретические основы антимонопольной политики, ее цели и методы, а также теория поведения фирмы и предпочтений потребителя. Во второй части анализируется соотношение между законодательством и экономической политикой в отношении слияний, поглощений, сегментации рынка и барьеров входа на рынок, ценовой дискриминации, связанных продаж и пр. В заключении подводятся итоги исследования и формулируют политические рекомендации в отношени антимонопольной политики.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Ian R. Bowler, Christopher R. Bryant, M. Duane Nellis
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, 296 с.
Первый том из двухтомного издания по исследованию современных аграрных систем. Рассматривается проблематика изменений, происходящих в сельской местности в развитых странах на примере Великобритании, США, Канады. Акцент делается на отношении сельского хозяйства и окружающей среды. Основные темы: развитие организационных структур в системе агробизнеса, диверсификация фермерского бизнеса, экология и современное сельское хозяйство, новые цели для политики, устойчивое сельское хозяйство.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Cristina Brasili
2003
In the course of the past decades major transformations in the Italian food industry induced considerable structural changes: on one hand, the creation of large industrial groups, with substantial input of foreign capital and, on the other, the concentration and geographic specialisation of numerous small and medium enterprises, with the formation of specific and typical agri-food local system(districts).To take account of the presence of food districts the analysis of the Italian food industry could not be conducted at national and regional level but it has to be studied at province and local level. It is also useful to analyse the food industry with reference to the different sub-sectors.

We will conduct an in-depth analysis of the local systems(districts) of two sectors meat and fruit and vegetables processing. We will use balance-sheet data of the processing firms that were active in the meat (446 firms) and fruit and vegetables (227 firms) sub-sector in the years from 1996 to 1999. The analysis will consider the most significant balance sheet ratios, such as returns, productivity and labour cost in these local systems. Then, we will consider the economic assessment of the firms belonging to local systems of the two sectors and compare with the non district firms .For the efficiency analysis will estimate a stochastic frontier production function in order to determine the ‘district effect’. This analysis will also be directly correlated with investment in technological innovation. The economic and efficiency analysis confirms for many aspects the presence of a ‘district effect’ in the Italian food industry.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Cristina Brasili, Roberto Fanfani
2002
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the structural changes in European Agri-food systems in the last 30 years in order to verify the presence of a convergence process towards a more homogeneous structure among EU countries. This analysis considers the relative importance of the main components of Agri-food systems (agriculture, food industry and food consumption) and how they change over time. The analysis of convergence utilise the European National Accounting Data (from the SEC2 Data Base of Eurostat) from 1970 to 2000 for twelve EU countries. We use tests of convergence on cross section data by countries, but also stochastic kernel methodologies to verify the dynamic evolution of groups of countries inside the EU. The results show there are important process of convergence among countries for the variables of the Agri-food system that are more linked to the economic development, such as the importance of agriculture and food consumption in GDP. On the other hand there are divergences on the variables more linked to the openness degree and to the competitiveness of the Agri-food system. The presence of polarisation process among groups of countries contribute to permanence of long run structural changes among Northern and Southern countries in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Paul Brassley
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1997, 176 с.
Offers a simple and concise guide to the economics (and relevant history and politics) of the agricultural industry and the CAP. Assuming no knowledge of economic theory, it covers the economics of agriculture and provides an intelligible outline of the CAP's main features.

Книга начального уровня по аграрной экономике и общей аграрной политике (ОАП) ЕС. Раскрываются аспекты аграрной экономики и основные черты общей аграрной политики ЕС.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Joachim Braun, Matin Qaim
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 301-321 с.
Falling real incomes, inequality in income distribution and the increased incidence of poverty have led to a both qualitative and quantitative deterioration in the average Russian’s diet. This analysis, which is based on a comprehensive household survey conducted in the mid-1990s, reveals that 19 percent of Russian families are poor according to at least two of the different poverty indicators used. It shows that, for the majority of rural and urban households, subsistence production of food is an important private mechanism for coping with the transformation risks of market failures. The subsistence sector is likely to be a long-term reality in Russia, that will continue to exist at least until the economy stabilizes and a sound social-security system supersedes this private insurance mechanism.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Martina Brockmeier, Claudia A. Herok, Oliver von Ledebur, Petra Salamon
Durban, 2003
Enlarging the EU presents a tremendous effort with obstacles for old and new member states especially in the agricultural sector. In this paper, impacts of a new accession round were analyzed with the help of the comparative-static general equilibrium model GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project). The standard version was extended to allow for a better representation of specific instruments of the Common Agriculture Policy and the EU budget.

To capture detailed effects in new member states, simulations were carried out for 12 candidate countries, the EU-15 and the rest of the world. As for products the focus lies on agriculture. Scenarios include an enlargement with and without the transfer of direct payments in the new member states, according to the proposal of the EU commission from January 2002. Simulations in a post-Agenda 2000 environment led to heterogeneous country specific impacts in the accession countries whereas the changes within EU-15 and the rest of the world were negligible. Due to adjustments in tariffs, trade balances of the new member states were deteriorating while welfare effects are positive. Transfer of direct payments led to more pronounced effects, especially with regard to output and trade. Without direct payments accession countries would be net contributors to the EU budget. This would change when they become eligible for this subsidy. In general, the analysis shows the importance of a country specific perspective.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2003
The study is devoted to the measurement of productivity and efficiency change in Chinese farming sector over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Within an output distance function framework, an index of total factor productivity is decomposed into technical and allocative efficiency, technical change, and scale effects. We estimate a parametric output distance function using individual farm household data from the province Zhejiang over the period 1986-2000. Results indicate that during the more market-oriented reform period in the mid 1980s productivity and technical efficiency increased while allocative efficiency remain constant. However, productivity growth and technical efficiency slow in the mid 1990s when market orientation of the reforms was reduced and self-sufficiency as a major goal reappeared on the political agenda.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
Durban, 2003
Water availability in semiarid regions commonly exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in basins with large infrastructure development, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, incurring economic losses during periods of scarcity. More flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, may help users reduce their risk exposure. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for lease-out contracts of water use rights. This paper analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the effect that establishing water markets has on the economic risk caused by water availability variations.

The empirical study is performed on an irrigation district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain) with fair levels of average water availability but a high probability of periods of extreme scarcity. A non-linear programming model is used to simulate irrigators’ behaviour and derive water demand functions. Another spatial equilibrium model is used to compute market exchange and equilibrium. These programming models are combined with statistical simulation techniques. It is shown that the probability distribution of profits for a representative irrigator is modified if water exchanges are authorised, resulting in unambiguous risk reductions. Results also suggests that if the market would be extended to several irrigation districts and users, each characterised by different hydrological risk exposure, the occurrence of extremely low benefits events would become more unlikely. In sum, it is shown that exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability of water supply across irrigation seasons.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Javier Guillem Carrau, Raul Compes Lopez
2002
The United States is the leading country in the application of biotechnology to agricultural methods. One of the principal reasons for this is the flexibility of its legislation on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). A significant part of its production of soya or corn is already genetically modified, so that its companies need to avoid technical barriers to their exports in the world markets?. In the EU, negative public opinion has contributed to the adoption by the authorities of exigent legislation in order to avoid the possible risks to human health and the environment posed by GMO. The EU’s authorisation procedure for these organisms is long and meticulous.

Furthermore, a compulsory labelling system has been adopted for products, which contain GMO or genetically modified materials (GM materials). In 1998, American interests started to be adversely affected by European legislation. The USA Administration threatened to sue the EU before the World Trade Organisation (WTO). These threats have yet to be followed up with any action. The rules of international trade are regulated by agreements signed up to by the members of the WTO. The EU can argue that its authorisation procedure is designed to reduce the risks to health and the environment. This line of argument is compatible with the Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The compulsory labelling system is also compatible with the Agreement on TBT if the WTO accepts that a product in which GM material is detected is not similar to a conventional one. The Protocol of Biosafety further supports the EU position since it advocates a cautious approach exemplified by the fact that the Protocol permits consideration of non-scientific risks during risk assessment. However, the Protocol is not yet in force, it is pending ratification by at least 50 countries and, now more than ever, it is uncertain whether the United States will be willing to ratify the Protocol. However, we cannot be sure that there will be future commercial controversy, which will show the contradictions between the commercial agreement and the environmental one.
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