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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 338

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ ИЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Walter P. Falcon
Berlin, 2000
This essay seeks to shed light on the causes and potential consequences of restricted germplasm flows among nations. My objective is to provide a synthesis of existing literature and events of which I was a part, with a focus on food security in poor countries. Regrettably, the mechanisms restricting flows are complicated, the data on the size and direction of flows are meager, the outcomes are uncertain, and the policy mechanisms for alleviating the problems are largely untested. My general hypothesis is that four separate forces are now interacting in ways that should worry everyone concerned with the transfer of technology, particularly improved crop varieties, to scores of the world’s poorest nations. These elements include: new provisions on intellectual property, especially patenting in the United States; an increased concentration of new enabling technologies into a few large multinational companies; heightened anxieties over transgenic foods, especially in Europe; and new problems arising from old ambiguities in the Convention on Biodiversity. Individually, these components are reasonably well understood. Collectively, however, they are poorly understood, and their combined impact on the poorer countries of the world is very troublesome.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Istvan Feher, Zsolt Papp
2002
Based on the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) approach this paper provides an assessment of the competitive position of the Hungarian agro-food industry in view of EU integration. The situation in the food processing sector is assessed with the use of actual cost data from representative Hungarian companies. The paper presents an assessment of the current situation prior to EU integration as well as a future outlook under various scenarios with regard to the expected policy environment and the rate of technological change. The actual measurement of competitiveness in this study focuses mainly on Private Resource Cost (PRC) which indicates competitiveness under real market conditions and Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) which gives an assessment on the social or economic efficiency of an activity, i.e. whether domestic resources are really used efficiently in current production. In the food processing sector 21 different food products have been investigated which fall into four industries: meat, poultry, dairy, and fruits and vegetables. Under current conditions only some products are competitive in private terms. The situation would improve after EU integration especially for poultry, fruits and vegetables, because agricultural policy conditions are more favourable under the CAP. If additional FDI(Foreign Direct Investments) would flow into the country after EU membership, this would boost profitability. As far as DRC values are concerned, it must be stated that only some of the production activities are clearly efficient. Dairy, fruits and vegetables, and roast goose production show relatively weak social competitiveness, while other poultry and fruit and vegetables products are more favourable from the economic point of view. As EU policies provide on average higher protection levels, the competitiveness of Hungarian food processing on world markets would deteriorate for most products after EU accession. However, these effects can be offset by additional technological change due to FDI inflows or otherwise induced technological progress.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Javier Fernandez
2002
This paper focuses on the consequences that an extension of the Common Agricultural Policy could have on agricultural production in the Central and Eastern European Countries. It reviews the evidence presented by recent attempts to quantify the potential impacts of accession on production levels in the CEECs. It also takes into account results from previous studies in order to analyse the importance that structural constraints might have on the capacity of the CEECs' agricultural sectors to respond to supply incentives under accession to the EU, and to examine some research questions that are still unanswered in relation to the supply potential of the CEECs. Some conclusions and policy recommendations are drawn at the end.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Imre Ferto, Lionel G. Hubbard
2003
We analyse the evolving pattern of Hungary.s agri-food trade using recently developed empirical procedures based on the classic Balassa index and its symmetric transformation. The extent of trade specialisation exhibits a declining trend; Hungary lost comparative advantage for a number of product groups over the 1990s. The indices of specialisation have also tended to converge. For particular product groups, the picture is mixed: indices are reasonably stable for product groups with comparative disadvantage, but those with weak to strong comparative advantage show significant variation. The results reinforce the finding of a general decrease in specialisation, but do not support the idea of self-reinforcing mechanisms, emphasised strongly in much of the endogenous growth and trade literature.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Achim Fock, Peter Weingarten, Olaf Wahl, Mikhail Prokopiev
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 271-297 с.
The paper analyzes the impact of different agricultural trade policies on Russia’s bilateral trade patterns, price and quantity changes, and welfare effects for producers, consumers, and the state budget. Three experiments are simulated using a partial equilibrium model based on the Armington approach. The results show that the current situation of import tariff-free trade between Russia and other CIS countries has small positive welfare effects for the Russian Federation in comparison to a situation where import tariffs between these countries were to be imposed.

However, according to the results, an elimination of import tariffs against all trading partners is preferable for Russia in terms of net welfare. An increase in discriminatory trade barriers against non-CIS countries would cause overall welfare losses for the Russian economy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Hank Folmer, Landis Gabel
USA: Edward Elgar, 2000, 784 с.
Книга по экономике природных ресурсов и окружающей среде раскрывает проблемы использования природных ресурсов и загрязнения окружающей среды, их экономическую составляющую и последствия, современные механизмы и инструменты политики в области защиты окружающей среды и поведение экономических агентов.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Fotopoulos, Athanasios Krystallis, Mitchell Ness
2002
The present study attempts to offer more insights into the Greek wine market with emphasis on wines produced from organically grown grapes by relating wine choice to consumers’ personal value structure. With the use of a qualitative sample and applying the Means-end Chains methodology and the corresponding “laddering” interviewing technique, it attempts first to reveal the way basic motives are linked to wine shopping behaviour of consumers and the way wine purchase-relevant knowledge is stored and organised in their memory in relation to their personal values. Then, by discriminating between organic food buyers and non-buyers, the study identifies motivational and cognitive discriminating differences between the two consumer types, which can offer a solid explanation as to their distinctive purchasing behaviour in respect of the organic products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Steven Franzel, Donald Phiri, Paramu Mafongoya
Durban, 2003
Although there is increasing emphasis on targeting of improved technology towards poor and female farmers, few adoption studies assess the uptake of new practices by these groups in a comprehensive manner.

In this study, community members used the wealth ranking method to identify the different wealth groups in their communities, to determine each household.s wealth status, and to assess the association of wealth and different types of households with the planting of improved tree fallows, a practice for improving crop yields. There were no significant differences between the proportions of women and men planting improved fallows nor were there differences between single women and female heads of households who were married. There was some evidence of association between planting improved fallows and wealth. That 22% of the .poor. group and 16% of the. very poor. group were planting them suggests that there are no barriers preventing low-income households from doing so. Moreover, the proportion of females, poor, and very poor people planting improved fallows varied considerably among villages, suggesting that opportunities exist for increasing their use of the technology. Whereas the use of mineral fertilizer is strongly associated with high- income, male farmers, improved fallows appear to be a gender-neutral and wealth-neutral technology. Poor farmers appreciate improved fallows because they permit them to substitute small amounts of land and labour for cash, their most scarce resource. Finally, the high degree of consistency among different key informants in classifying households among wealth groups confirmed the effectiveness and accuracy of the wealth ranking exercise.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin, Bingxin Yu
Durban, 2003
Agricultural productivity in 41 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from 1960 to 1999 is examined by estimating a semi-nonparametric Fourier production frontier. Over the four decades the estimated rate of productivity change was 0.83% per year, although the average rate from 1985-99 was a strong 1.90% per year. Former UK colonies exhibited significantly higher productivity gains than others, while Liberia and countries that had been colonies of Portugal or Belgium exhibited net reductions in productivity. We measure a significant reduction in productivity during political conflicts and wars, and a significant increase in productivity among those countries with a measure of political rights and civil liberties.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jun Furuya, Takeshi Sakurai
2003
Most of the large-scale millers in Ghana provide a loan to the farmers under the agreement that the farmers will bring their paddy to them.

This paper examines the effect of this interlinkage on the efficiency of rice milling. A quadratic cost function was estimated, and capacity utilization was calculated in relation to money lending. The results show that if the millers provide a loan to the farmers, the operating rate will increase by 24%.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rosa Gallardo, Fernando Ramos, Eduardo Ramos
2002
The evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and its successive Reforms, has caused a loss of both internal coherence and social legitimacy. On the other hand, the Agenda 2000 has situated agriculture within the objective of competitiveness. What may well be asked is whether indeed the different European agricultural systems are converging towards this objective of competitiveness. To be able to reply to this question it is necessary to change from a “meso” analysis of the CAP to a “micro” analysis of farms referring to specific regions.

Starting from this context and problem, this paper analyses how the agriculture of the region of Andalusia can be affected by the competitiveness approach in an area which is in an advanced process of modernization but nevertheless maintains a strong agricultural character and a dependence on the CAP. For this analysis, we have started from the fact that farmers make strategic decisions so as to adapt to a changing political situation. The main objective of this work is to contrast the importance of a combination of structural and strategic variables to explain the differences in the competitive position of agricultural systems compared with different situations of the CAP. In order to achieve this objective, analytical instruments of competitive and strategic approaches, normally designed for individual enterprises in other economic sectors, have been used, adapting them to the agricultural system as a whole. The results allow the affirmation that the farmers who obtain the best competitive positions are those who adopt a strategic position concerning their activity, with a greater coherence between the definition of their objectives and of the resource allocation strategies they design in order to achieve them.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Vasant P. Gandhi, Robin Marsh
Durban, 2003
The paper examines the impact of local institutions on development and poverty in the rural areas of India. Recent research on the role of institutions on the path of economic development indicates the importance of both "macro" and "micro" institutions including local institutions. The study finds a large number of both formal and informal local institutions in the surveyed villages, and a substantial degree of interaction of the households with the institutions. These include both formal institutions such as service cooperatives and dairy cooperatives, as well as informal institutions such as savings groups, community associations and labour groups. The study finds that apart from the standard factors included such as land, capital and labour, the presence and membership in local institutions plays a significant role in explaining the variation in household incomes and gain in capital assets over time.

Savings/ micro-credit groups, and dairy cooperatives are found to be particularly important. Further, membership in these institutions is not found to be related to high asset levels or high caste - it is often inversely so. This indicates a stronger developmental role. Recorded opinions of the households supports the findings on the impact and beneficial role of local institutions. The study confirms that institutions do matter, and that local institutions can and do make a significant contribution in helping development in the rural areas, especially so for the lower income groups.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Roberto J. Garcia
Durban, 2003
The Uruguay Round of GATT introduced market disciplines to international trade in agricultural commodities. However, in cases where countries negotiated the right to limit market access, support domestic production at high levels and subsidize exports, the spirit of the WTO rules have been violated. The Norwegian meat market (beef, pork, lamb and mutton, and chicken) situations are studied in terms of the policy implications and WTO commitments. If Norway's policy objective is to target some level of production that satisfies its non-trade concerns, then semi-decoupled income support could be an improvement over a policy mix that simultaneously restricts market access, provides domestic support and applies export subsidies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Cornelis Gardebroek
2002
Organic dairy farming in the Netherlands is a growing sector. This paper investigates the impact of a number of economic and farm-specific variables on the choice between conventional and organic farming. Based on expected utility maximisation, a theoretical framework is developed that explicitly accounts for the impact of non-economics variables like age and education level and unobserved characteristics. The model is estimated with an unbalanced panel of Dutch dairy farms using a random effects probit specification.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruce L. Gardner
2003
My aim is to follow Yair Mundlak's recommendation, which concluded his Elmhirst Lecture, to identify sources of and constraints upon economic growth in agriculture. I come to the subject not as a long-time researcher on international agricultural development, but rather as a follow-up to studies of the development of U.S. agriculture. The story of U.S. agriculture led me, as many before, to consider possible lessons for countries where sustained growth in the real incomes of rural people has not yet occurred. Moreover, my U.S. research led into questions of how the relatively poorest farm people have fared in the growth process (Gardner, 2000), a topic which fits well with the emphasis of President von Braun’s address.

I begin by revisiting some fundamentals of agricultural development economics, the literature concerning it, and data measurement issues. In the second major section, empirical evidence is reviewed on the growth of agriculture as an industry. The third section turns to welfare consequences of agricultural growth as measured by real household incomes. The final section discusses conclusions about the causes of sector growth and real income growth.
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