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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 190

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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Antje Springer, Georgios Papastefanou, Asterios Tsioumanis, Konstadinos Mattas
As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking of the EU member countries in relation to the prevalence of rejection of genetically modified food, 2) uncovering intra-european differences in genetic food engineering rejection as being based on socio-demographic and informational resp. knowledge based differentials between EU countries and 3) specifying the importance of socio-economic and informational determinants of a potential defender of genetically modified food by estimating the partial effects of age, gender, education, income, family status, size of household, knowledge on genetical food engineering and information use behavior in a multivariate model of the attitudes towards genetically modified food. This causal approach will be followed in selected EU countries representing extreme positions in the EU attitude ranking. By these empirical results the paper is trying to reveal intra-EU differentials of consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food, which is a necessary baseline for adequate and efficient policies in order to satisfy consumer needs for quality and security. The results will also prove helpful to the food industry providing differential information for marketing decisions and focusing adjustments in different EU food markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2007
Joe Tidd, John Bessant, Keith Pavitt
Изд-во: John Wiley & Sons, 2005, 600 с.
Managing Innovation provides readers with the knowledge to understand, and the skills to manage, innovation at the operational and strategic levels. Specifically, it integrates the management of market, organizational and technological change to improve the competitiveness of firms and effectiveness of other organizations. The management of innovation is inherently interdisciplinary and multifunctional and Tidd, Bessant & Pavitt provide an integrative approach to the subject. Two new perspectives are introduced through which to re-examine material presented in each chapter: sustaining versus disruptive innovation (a greater emphasis will be placed on disruptive innovation) and organizations versus networks (greater discussion of the network issues raised in each chapter). Provides more treatment of innovation in services. Greater internationalization of case examples will be provided e.g. more examples will be included from Asia and Latin America. Introduces discussion of the relationship between innovation and the environment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Derry Trampe, Churk Parker, Tammie Fischer, Mary Lynn Reiser
Omaha, USA: Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Nebraska, 2002, 72 с.
Now, with some 280 million people and mile after beautiful mile of land in the United States, are resources limited? Do you always get what you want? Neither do I. But this means that relative to our unlimited wants, resources are limited. When the ideas of unlimited wants and limited resources are used together, you will often see the word scarcity mentioned. Scarcity is a shorthand way of referring to the combination of unlimited wants and limited resources. So, in some books you see a basic definition of economics as the study of scarcity.
As we move forward and go through these lesson plans, remember the focus is on the entrepreneur in the context of economics. Also, remember the entrepreneur is the human resource in charge of organizing all the other resources in production. These lessons are designed to help you as a Nebraska teacher teach to and assess some of the standards for social studies, reading and writing, and mathematics. Each lesson will identify the standards addressed in that lesson by number. A grid is included in this curriculum that has the standards written out in full along with the lesson(s) that address each
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Kerry Turner, David Pearce, Ian Bateman
USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994, 324 с.
Учебник начального уровня по экономике окружающей среды. Рассматриваются взаимосвязь экономики и политики в области защиты окружающей среды, ситуация снижения роли экономики при возрастании экологических проблем, влияние рынков и государственной политики, защита окружающей среды посредством экономических механизмов, развитие экономики окружающей среды.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
David Vanzetti, Ralf Peters
Proposals for agricultural trade reform put forward by the main protagonists remain far apart, with little sign of convergence. In an attempt to progress the negotiations towards a successful outcome, the chairman of the WTO Committee on Agriculture has proposed a compromise. The alternative proposals by the United States, the European Union and the WTO are analysed with the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model, a static, multi-commodity, multi-region, partial equilibrium trade model. The estimated annual global welfare gains are $26 billion, $12 billion and $17 billion respectively. Least developed countries, as a group, gain from the US proposal but are made worse off under the WTO and EU proposals. Furthermore, in the best case many individual countries experience welfare losses. However, all countries enjoy increased export revenues and tariff revenues hold up quite well under the two less stringent proposals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
Andres Velasco, Eric Parrado
Using an optimizing model we derive the optimal monetary and exchange rate policy for a small stochastic open economy with imperfect competition and short run price rigidity. The optimal monetary policy has an exact closed-form solution and is obtained using the utility function of the representative home agent as welfare criterion. The optimal policy depends on the source of stochastic disturbances affecting the economy, much as in the literature pioneered by Poole (1970). Optimal monetary policy reacts to domestic and foreign disturbances. If the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in consumption is less than one, as is likely to be the case empirically, the optimal exchange rate policy implies a dirty float: interest rate shocks from abroad are met partially by adjusting home interest rates, and partially by allowing the exchange rate to move. This optimal pattern may help rationalize the observed fear of floating.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Wusheng Yu, Thomas W. Hertel, Paul Preckel, James Eales
Projections of world food demands hinge critically on the underlying functional form used to predict future demands. Simple functional forms can lead to unrealistic projections by failing to capture changes in income elasticities of demand as consumer becomes wealthier. This paper compares several demand systems in the projection of disaggregated food demand across a wide range of countries with different income levels using a global general equilibrium model. We find that the recently introduced AIDADS system represents a substantial improvement over existing demand systems currently in use in CGE modeling. In particular, our projection results show that for relatively poor regions experiencing rapid income growth, the widely used LES and CDE demand systems tend to over-predict growth in consumer demand, and hence import and output requirements for food products and under-predict that for non-food products, compared to the AIDADS system. On the other hand, for high-income regions with modest income growth, the choice of functional form is less critical.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-06-2004
John H. Zenger, Ed Musselwhite, Katheleen Hurson, Craig Perrin
Изд-во: Irvin Professional, 1993
Осуществление командного подхода к решению проблемы представляет определенные трудности менеджерам. Авторы данной книги пробуют сделать этот переход более легким, предлагая доступное для понимания руководство по "разделенному лидерству", в котором объясняются преимущества команды и возможности по смягчению сопротивления делегированию полномочий.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Stefanos Zenios, Erica L. Plambeck
Парадигма "принципал-агент", в которой принципал играет первую роль в работе некоторой системы, но делегирует операционный контроль за этой системой агенту, имеет множество естественных применений в операционном менеджменте (ОМ). Однако существующие модели "принципал-агент" ограниченно применяются исследователями ОМ, поскольку они не отображают богатую динамическую структуру, требуемую от моделей ОМ. В данной работе сформулирована новая динамическая модель, способная преодолеть эти ограничения путем сочетания сети "принципал-агент" с физической структурой процесса решений Маркова. В этой модели имеется система, переходящая с течением временем от одного состояния к другому, причем вероятности перехода зависят от выбранных агентом действий, а принципал платит агенту, исходя из наблюдаемого состояния переходов. Принципал ищет оптимальную схему выплат, стремясь вызвать действия, максимизирующие его ожидаемую выгоду в ограниченном горизонте планирования. Динамические модели "принципал-агент", сходные с предлагаемой, считаются трудно поддающимися обработке, но авторы вводят ряд постулатов, делающих возможным систематический анализ. Эти постулаты включают экономическую, а не физическую структуру модели. При таких посылках авторы полагают, что для вывода оптимальной схемы выплат можно использовать рекурсивное динамическое программирование. Такая схема не обладает памятью и удовлетворяет обобщенному принципу оптимальности Беллмана. Важные идеи управления освещены в контексте примера, включающего два состояния и названного проблемой обслуживания.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него