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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 46

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Опубликовано на портале: 26-04-2007
Ред.: Alison Bettley, David Mayle, Tarek Tantoush
Изд-во: Sage Publications, 2005, 328 с.
This reader is an outstanding piece of work. It captures the essence of operations management by providing an interesting and sometimes provoking set of readings. It also provides an excellent review of the topic. Its approach to operations management is both topical and comprehensive. The editors have done an outstanding job of including many of the significant recent developments in the area, particularly in the technology and operations strategy areas
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-04-2007
Jack R. Meredith, Scott M. Shafer
Изд-во: Wiley, 2006, 439 с.
Focus on the Needs of the MBA Student! Meredith and Shafer introduce the key topics of operations management focusing on the needs of MBA students. Contemporary concepts of relevance to MBA students such as the balanced scorecard, core competency, mass customization, benchmarking, business process design, and enterprise resource planning (SAP) are also included. More importantly, the book is written with the marketing, finance, and other majors in mind, emphasizing how a basic understanding of operations is important to all career paths. Operations management for MBAs is also specifically designed to allow the professor to tailor their course around the students' needs! The streamlined coverage of concepts provides the instructor with the opportunity to integrate additional materials into the course such as cases and readings, further enhancing student learning. Furthermore, having a text that solidly covers just the fundamental concepts provides students with the background needed to integrate these important supplementary materials
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2004
Teun A. van Dijk
London: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1998, 21-64 с.
"Мнения и идеологии в прессе" - статьия популярного исследователя медиа и дискурса, опубликованная в сборнике "Подходы к изучению дискурса масс-медиа" под редакцией А.Белла и П.Гаррета. Известный голландский ученый в данной работе опираясь на широко применяемы им социокогнитивный подход анализирует методологию изучения дискурса современной прессы. В его структуре он выделяет среди прочего мнения и идеологии. Ван Дайк предлагает считать идеологии оценочным фундаментом группового менталитета, так как они задают основные принципы, руководящие формированием групповых «мнений», в том числе и относительно того, что члены группы считают правильным или неправильным, истинным или ложным. Большинство идеологий задают также и схемы конструирования идентичностей.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Agnar Hegrenes, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Gudbrand Lien
Durban, 2003
A model is presented to investigate the optimal economic life cycle of grass leys with winter damage problems in northern Norway and to determine the threshold of winter damage before it is profitable to reseed. A two-level hierarchic Markov process has been constructed using the MLHMP software. The model takes uncertainty concerning yield potential, damage estimation and weather dependent random fluctuations into account. A Kalman filter technique is used for updating of knowledge on yield potential and damage level.

The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Norwegian farms. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among farms, it is concluded that decision support concerning optimal economic life cycle of grass leys should be done at farm level. The results also show the importance of using a flexible dynamic replacement strategy. Use of the model for a specific farm situation is illustrated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-09-2003
Giancarlo Corsetti, Nouriel Roubini
This paper analyzes optimal spending, tax and financial policies in models of endogenous growth where public spending is productive. We extend previous work in four directions. First, we analyze optimal policies when the government is allowed to borrow and lend, rather than being restricted to run a balanced budget in every period. Second, we develop a model with a separate human capital accumulation sector. Therefore, the properties of optimal policies depend on whether government spending affects the productivity of the final goods sector or the human capital accumulation sector. Third, we consider the policy implications of alternative assumptions about which factor of production benefits from the external effects of productive public goods. Fourth, we study the implications of restrictions on the menu of tax instruments available to the policy maker. We contrast optimal tax rates on human and physical capital under different assumptions on technology and distribution. We analyze the welfare properties of public debt and assets.

Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
Andres Velasco, Eric Parrado
Using an optimizing model we derive the optimal monetary and exchange rate policy for a small stochastic open economy with imperfect competition and short run price rigidity. The optimal monetary policy has an exact closed-form solution and is obtained using the utility function of the representative home agent as welfare criterion. The optimal policy depends on the source of stochastic disturbances affecting the economy, much as in the literature pioneered by Poole (1970). Optimal monetary policy reacts to domestic and foreign disturbances. If the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in consumption is less than one, as is likely to be the case empirically, the optimal exchange rate policy implies a dirty float: interest rate shocks from abroad are met partially by adjusting home interest rates, and partially by allowing the exchange rate to move. This optimal pattern may help rationalize the observed fear of floating.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-08-2003
Robert J. Barro
A tax-smoothing objective is used to assess the optimal consumption of public debt with respect to maturity and contingencies. This objective motivates the government to make its debt payout contingent on the levels of public outlay and the tax base. If these contingencies are present, but asset prices of non-contingent indexed debt are stochastic, then full tax smoothing dictates an optimal maturity structure of the non-contingent debt. If the certainty-equivalent outlays are the same for each period then the government should guarantee equal real payouts in each period, that is, the debt takes the form of indexed consols. This structure insulates the government's budget constraint from unpredictable variations in the market prices of indexed bonds of various maturities. If contingent debt is precluded, then the government may want to depart from a consol maturity structure to exploit covariances among public outlay, the tax base, and the term structure of real interest rates. However, if moral hazard is the reason for the preclusion of contingent debt, then this consideration also deters exploitation of these covariances and tends to return the optimal solution to the consol maturity structure. The issue of nominal bonds may allow the government to exploit the covariances among public outlay, the tax base, and the rate of inflation. But if moral-hazard explains the absence of contingent debt, then the same reasoning tends to make nominal debt issue undesirable. The bottom line is that an optimal-tax approach to public debt favors bonds that are indexed and long term.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Johannes Roseboom, Paul Diederen, Arie Kuyvenhoven
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves, one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of return between the two portfolios) would increase the budget for smallholder projects by 29% and decrease that of commercial farmer projects by 26%. Total economic welfare would increase with 2.1% and there is a modest distributional effect: smallholder welfare increases by 14% and commercial farmer welfare decreases by 11%. In other words, more efficiency in the selection of agricultural R&D projects favors poor smallholders. We also analyze the effects of a premium on research benefits accruing to smallholders and find them to be limited. Rather than trying to shift the R&D opportunity curve artificially, we conclude that policies that can help to increase the profitability of research investments across the board (such as investment in infrastructure, development of markets, and education) and hence shift the R&D opportunity curve for poor smallholders outwards should be pursued more vigorously.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Anna Haring
Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic arable and dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which integrates simulation modelling and focus groups, profitability of model farms is analysed ex-post for year the 1999 and their potential development simulated until 2008 under Agenda 2000 and three alternative policy scenarios. For each policy scenario potential farm adaptation strategies are analysed.

Size, structure, productivity, achieved output prices and policy surrounding of typical organic farms differ widely between countries and farm types. Great differences in the contribution of payments to total farm profit and farm family labour remuneration are observed. Dairy model farms are expected to slightly benefit from Agenda 2000, while arable farms are more susceptible to price reductions realised in the Agenda 2000 package. In adaptation to Agenda 2000 organic dairy farms are expected to grow, while arable farms are more likely to diversify production or envisage valued adding strategies. The effects of alternative policy scenarios on profitability of typical farms are similar in all countries. The choice of adaptation strategy of farmers in the different countries, however, vary significantly, mainly due to the current market situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Edward Lorenz
This paper draws on J.R. Commons theory of institutional change to make some suggestions for integrating the political dimension into an analysis of routines and organisational learning, or the processes that change routines. The programmatic advice offered here remains incomplete, though, as the cognitive aspect of routines is examined from the partial angle of the relational and organisation-specific knowledge that individuals require in order to get the job done. In the concluding section of the paper, the author suggest that research based on the cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition may provide the tools for integrating this latter building-block into a Commons inspired account of routines and organisational learning.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-04-2007
Tony J. Watson
London: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2006, 528 с.
The book takes as its starting point the everyday practices of people at all levels in organisations as they manage their work. It encourages the reader to use and judge organisation and management theories by their relevance to ‘real life’ practices and dilemmas, ranging the day-to-day to major strategic change.
The book also offers insights into aspects of organisational life that are often marginalised, such as the politics and ethics of managerial action; the ambiguous, uncertain and contested nature of organisational processes; and the significance of angst, emotion, humour and mischief in the everyday life of organisations
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Lucio Biggiero, Domenico Laise
Organizational decisions are characterized by a multiplicity of choice criteria. This property, which in reality affects virtually all human behaviors, prevents use of the standard (neoclassical) theory of decisions based on the maximization of a single criterion. Rather, the outranking methods developed by the French school of operational research make it possible to deal with multicriterial choices and avoid the defects of the naive method. This paper develops a paradigmatic example in order to show the essential effects of the outranking methods and their compatibility with the theory of limited rationality and satisfactory choices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2003
Stephen P. Robbins
London, New York: Prentice-Hall, 2002, 10-е изд.
This highly reputable book continues to provide the most comprehensive, reality-based review of organizational behavior of its kind. Fully engaging readers with its lively, conversational style, it helps readers explain and predict behavior in organizationspivoting discussions around three levels of analysis: the individual, the group, and the organization system. It has been revised to reflect recent research developments and findings in business practice and offers the latest in technology with CD-ROM and Internet support. The book provides a complete review of organizational behavior as it relates to the foundations of individual and group behavior, the role of personality and emotions, motivation and communication, human resource policies and practices and organizational dynamics. For those in management, public administration, psychology, social work, political science and education who deal with individual and group dynamics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2003
Edgar Schein
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992
'Organizational learning, development and planned change cannot be understood without considering culture as a primary source of resistance to change.' Thus argues Schein in the second edition of this seminal book. The work is organized into six parts, dealing with a.what culture is and does; b.the dimensions of culture; c.how to study and interpret culture; d.the role of leadership in building culture; e.the evolution of culture and leadership and; f.learning cultures and learning leaders. Schein's discussion of learning draws explicitly on the thinking of Donald Michael, Tom Malone and Peter Senge and asserts that the leaders of the future will have to be perpetual learners. This is a highly readable book, which pulls together insights from both the academic and practitioner worlds. Its canvass is broad but represents the real depth of understanding that comes from an expert who has spent years developing his knowledge of this topic.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-04-2007
Rodolphe Durand
Изд-во: Sage Publications, 2006, 200 с.
Rodolphe Durand has a compelling message for the growing community of evolutionary researchers in organization studies. Evolutionary researchers need to attend more carefully to historical and contemporary debates in the biological sciences if they are to avoid false tracks and simplisitic analogies. Durand offers here the foundations of a distinctive and authentic evolutionary theory that takes organizations seriously for what they are
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