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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 90

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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
Jose David Vicente Lorente, Jose Angel Zuniga Vicente
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of strategic moves on the likelihood of organizational survival in a population of firms which has undergone continuous and radical transformations in its environment. To this end, the authors propose and test two competitive hypotheses which are the result of two other theoretical perspectives about the consequences of strategic change: the adaptation view (classic strategic management and dynamic capabilities) and the ecological approach. While from the former strategic change has a positive effect on the likelihood of organizational survival, from the ecological approach, strategic change implies an increase in the likelihood of organizational extinction. The sample used to test the two proposed hypotheses is the Spanish private banks population over the period 1983-1997. The results confirm the negative effect of strategic change on the likelihood of organizational extinction, in line with the conclusions of the adaptive perspective and other research carried out in different settings. This paper introduces two important methodological innovations: (a) the definition and measurement of strategic change by using a new cluster algorithm, MCLUST; and (b) the control of the non-observable heterogeneity using panel data models for logit regression.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Patricia Mejias, Consuelo Varela-Ortega, Guillermo Flichman
The interactions of water policies and agricultural policies are increasingly determinant for achieving an efficient management of water resources in many countries. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively towards mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common agricultural Policy (Agenda 2000) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators. responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in Southern Spain. For this purpose, we have developed a stochastic programming model that estimates the farmers. responses to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policies scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district.s reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive but a similar water-pricing policy could have distinct effects on water use, farmers. income and collected revenue by the water authority in different agricultural policy options. Water availability is a determinant factor and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus, there is a need to integrate the objectives of Water Policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek a synergy between these two policies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-01-2003
Roger LeRoy Miller, David VanHoose
Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College, 2003
This text provides a sophisticated and comprehensive treatment of intermediate macroeconomic theory. It focuses on helping the reader understand macroeconomic theory and how to apply it to important business, policy, and global issues. Management, policy, and international applications are integrated throughout. In addition, the latest technology tools enhance reader understanding of macroeconomics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Kyosti Pietola, Minna Vare, Alfons Oude Lansink
This paper estimates farmer decisions between three discrete occupational choices: exit and close down the farming operation (1), exit and transfer the farm to a new entrant (2), or continue farming and retain the option to exit later on (3). The farmer optimisation problem is formulated as a recursive optimal stopping problem. The unknown parameters are first estimated by a switching-type, reduced form Probit models and, then by the Simulated maximum likelihood (SML) method, controlling for serial correlation in the errors. Serial correlation in the errors is controlled for by the Geweke-Hajivassiliou-Keane (GHK) simulation technique. The results suggest that the timing and the type of farmer exit decisions respond elastically to farmer characteristics, farm characteristics, and economic environment. Early retirement programs and the level of farmer retirement benefits are predicted to play a key role in steering structural development and enhancing family farms in the Nordic agricultural sectors.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emmanuelle Raynaud, Loic Sauvee, Egizio Valceschini
For many agricultural products, the quality of the final products strongly depends on different stages of the productive chain. This stresses the importance of relationships between quality signal owners and suppliers in the vertical chain. Based on a New Institutional Economics analysis, the goal of this paper is twofold:
(i) to design a framework to study the links between quality signaling, coordination in the supply chains and the institutional environment,
(ii) to conduct a comparative analysis to identify, compare and explain the modes of organization implemented for the governance of different quality signs.
The general hypothesis is that, in order to assure the credibility of a quality signal, there must be an efficient alignment between quality characteristics and governance of the supply chain. To test this general hypothesis, we have conducted a comparative analysis of 42 case studies in 3 sectors (processed meat, cheese, fruit and vegetable sectors) from 7 European countries. This diversity allows us to compare the organizations designed to govern different quality signals in different institutional environments and to test the matching between quality signals and governance structures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-05-2004
Vladislav Bajaja, Wilhelm Buhrer, Peter Krassnig, Phillippe Nanopoulos, Emmanuel Raulin, Guy Valentin
Ред.: Utz-Peter Reih, Rudolph Janke
Stuttgart: Mettzler-Poeschel, 1996
Сборник "Статистика предприятий" содержит научные материалы, освещающие все основные вопросы этой отрасли статистики. В нем дано обобщающее статистическое определение предприятия, рассматриваются проблемы составления национальных регистров предприятий, являющихся информационной основой проведения ежегодных обследований, и методические вопросы организации таких обследований. Особенно интересно, что в рецензируемом сборнике, представляющем собой вторую книгу серии "Статистические очерки", собраны статьи представителей двух различных, принятых в Европе статистических подходов к оценке границ сектора предприятий: национального, или французского, и секторального, или немецкого. Научная ценность сборника определяется также и подробным анализом методических подходов к интеграции статистической информации о предприятиях, полученной в указанных различных концепциях определения границ сектора предприятий. Проведение весной 2003 г. экономической переписи в России делает аннотируемый сборник особенно актуальным.

Опубликовано на портале: 15-06-2004
Diter Vesper, Hanz Reim, Yoahim Goletz, Edward A. Doggett, Wolfgang Scholz
Ред.: Utz-Peter Reih
Stuttgart: Mettzler-Poeschel, 1997
Книга "Статистика финансов сектора государственного управления" под редакцией Утца-Петера Райха и Рудольфа Янке представляет собой четвёртый том серии "Статистические очерки". В ней находит своё логическое продолжение статистическое описание процесса трансформации секторов экономики (после статистики предприятий и статистики сельского хозяйства во втором и третьем томах). При переходе к рынку статистическая информация о государственном секторе ограничивается отчётностью лишь тех экономических агентов, которые заняты производством товаров и услуг для коллективного и общего потребления и финансируются за счёт принудительных платежей. Основная часть деятельности сектора органов государственного управления состоит в перераспределении доходов и нерыночном выпуске продукции. В этой сфере производства общие законы рынка не действуют, поэтому определяющую роль играют национальные и институциональные особенности экономических единиц. В связи с необходимостью учёта таких особенностей в статистической деятельности тематика сборника включает не только изложение методов, применяемых в статистическом анализе для характеристики структуры и динамики финансов сектора органов государственного управления, но и факторов, определяющих эту динамику. Существенная особенность сборника определяется попыткой описания конкретных правовых условий и форм работы в области статистики финансов, сложившихся в странах с различными функциями государственного сектора в экономике. Опубликованные в сборнике материалы были подготовлены авторами, участвовавшими в качестве лекторов в организованной в Берлине программе повышения квалификации в области статистики финансов.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Riccardo Scarpa, Laura Viganò, Davide Bortolozzo
A farmer’s choice to part-take into an on farm investment programme can be modelled as a discrete choice. The idea of this paper is to test the possibility of using discrete choice models in the field of the evaluation of structural policies. Farmers choose to take part into agricultural programmes according to their preferences, their structural type and their economic environment. Adhesion to a voluntary scheme or policy can be cast as a discrete choice problem. Hence, discrete choice models are adequate to describe probability of choice, especially against a framework of utility maximization. First, we want to explore if the choice of investing in schemes supported by EAGGF depends on farms’ characteristics, such as Used Agricultural Area, Standard Gross Margin, Farm type, Possession of lands, Form of Farm Management, Standard Work Unit, class of European Size Unit, Fixed costs, etc.. We use is the binomial logit model to explain the probability of making an on-farm investment with regard to Italian Central and Northern Regions. The estimation of such a model allows us to identify the determinants of such a decision. We also use discrete choice analysis to identify the significant determinants of the probability of selection of on-farm investment across 12 investment categories within the Regulation (EC) No 950/97. These include – amongst others – land purchase, system for refusal treatment, land improvement, agricultural machinery, agricultural and non-agricultural farm buildings, land improvements, permanent cultivations etc. We find such an approach to be insightful on the basis of data from the Italian RICA business farm survey, and hence propose to develop it further.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-11-2008
Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny
Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998, 288 с.
In many countries, public sector institutions impose heavy burdens on economic life: heavy and arbitrary taxes retard investment, regulations enrich corrupt bureaucrats, state firms consume national wealth, and the most talented people turn to rent-seeking rather than productive activities. As a consequence of such predatory policies--described in this book as the grabbing hand of the state--entrepreneurship lingers and economies stagnate. The authors of this collection of essays describe many of these pathologies of a grabbing hand government, and examine their consequences for growth. The essays share a common viewpoint that political control of economic life is central to the many government failures that we observe. Fortunately, a correct diagnosis suggests the cures, including the best strategies of fighting corruption, privatization of state firms, and institutional building in the former socialist economies. Depoliticization of economic life emerges as the crucial theme of the appropriate reforms. The book describes the experiences with the grabbing hand government and its reform in medieval Europe, developing countries, transition economies, as well as today's United States.
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Privatizing Russia [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-11-2008
Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny, Maksim Boycko
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995, 175 с.
Privatizing Russia offers an inside look at one of the most remarkable reforms in recent history. Having started on the back burner of Russian politics in the fall of 1991, mass privatization was completed on July 1, 1994, with two thirds of the Russian industry privately owned, a rapidly rising stock market, and 40 million Russians owning company shares. The authors, all key participants in the reform effort, describe the events and the ideas driving privatization. They argue that successful reformers must recognize privatization as a process of depoliticizing firms in the face of massive opposition: making the firm responsive to market rather than political influences. The authors first review the economic theory of property rights, identifying the political influence on firms as the fundamental failure of property rights under socialism. They detail the process of coalition building and compromise that ultmately shaped privatization. The main elements of the Russian program —corporatization, voucher use, and voucher auctions—are described, as is the responsiveness of privatized firms to outside investors. Finally, the market values of privatized assets are assessed for indications of how much progress the country has made toward reforming its economy. In many respects, privatization has been a great success. Market concepts of property ownership and corporate management are shaking up Russian firms at a breathtaking pace, creating powerful economic and political stimuli for continuation of market reforms. At the same time, the authors caution, the political landscape remains treacherous as old-line politicians reluctantly cede their property rights and authority over firms
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Louis H.G. Slangen, Cornelis G. van Kooten, Pavel Suchanek
The agricultural sector in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is confronted by two huge problems simultaneously: transition processes and sustainability. Institutions are very important for both these problems. The purpose of this paper is to make clear that the institutional setting is very important, and to give insight into the initial situation of institutions for sustainability and transitions. For this purpose we carried out surveys in CEE with questions about government performance, institutional environment, government structures and social capital. There is strong relationship between the determinants of good government performance in general and those for good government for realizing sustainable agriculture. However, besides formal rules, the informal rules of the institutional environment and social capital are also very important for realizing of sustainable agriculture. Results of surveys show that these institutional elements and the level of social capital are different in the countries of CEE, and have to be developed. Knowledge of government performance, institutional environment and social capital is a necessary condition for developing more suitable governance structures for realizing sustainable agriculture.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003
Brian Snowdon, Howard R. Vane
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003
The Encyclopedia of Macroeconomics is an authoritative and invaluable reference source on macroeconomics, which embraces definitions of terms and concepts, conflicting ideological approaches and the contributions of major thinkers. Comprehensive in scope, it contains over 300 short entries and more than 100 specially commissioned main entries from an internationally renowned group of scholars.
The alphabetically ordered entries will be useful both as a basic reference source and a provocative stimulus for further reading. The Encyclopedia will soon be established as a leading reference source on macroeconomics that will both enlighten students and be highly valued by scholars and teachers of economics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Federico Sturzenegger, Mariano Tommasi, Allan Drazen, Raquel Fernandez, Dani Rodrik, Alberto Alesina, Raúl Laban, Vittorio Grilli, Guillermo Mondino, Andres Velasco, Joshua Aizenman, Shang-Jin Wei, Gerard Roland, Mathias Dewatripont, César Martinelli, Ricardo López Murphy, Alex Cukierman
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998, 362 с.
In this book, Federico Sturzenegger and Mariano Tommasi propose formal models to answer some of the questions raised by the recent reform experience of many Latin American and East European countries. They apply common standards of analytical rigor to the study of economic and political behavior, assuming political agents to be rational and forward-looking, with expectations consistent with the properties of the underlying model.

The book is organized around three basic questions: first, why do reforms take place? Second, how are reforms implemented? And third, which candidates are most likely to undertake reform? Although most of the chapters deal with policy issues in developing economies, the findings also apply to areas such as social security and health care reform in industrialized countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Ida J. Terluin, Gabe S. Venema
The menu approach of the second pillar of the CAP allows regions/countries to select those rural development measures which suit their needs best. The selection from the second pillar menu, which consists of 22 rural development measures, has to be reported in the Rural Development Plan. In this article we test the hypothesis ‘Regions select a few measures from the menu which are according to their rural development needs.’ For this purpose, we analysed three main steps which have to be taken in the application of the menu approach: (1) the identification of rural development priorities; (2) the selection of rural development measures to relieve these rural development priorities; and (3) the allocation of financial means to these rural development measures. The analysis is restricted to eight regions in the EU: four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia). It appears that the case study regions selected quite a large number of rural development measures from the menu, varying from 12 to 18. The analysis reveals that doubts can be raised whether all selected measures are according to the rural development priorities of the case study regions. In addition, it seems that rural development measures are sometimes interpreted in different ways by regions and that the relationship between the rural development measures and the three objectives of the second pillar is not unambiguous. Therefore, some reformulation of rural development measures and objectives of the second pillar is suggested at the end of this article. The findings of our analysis may serve as input in the debate on the future orientation of EU rural development policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Arne Tostensen, Inge Tvedten, Mariken Vaa
Изд-во: Nordic Africa Institute, 2001, 320 с.
The book contains 17 chapters with material from 13 African countries, from Egypt to Swaziland and from Senegal to Kenya. Most of the authors are young African academics. The focus of the volume is the multitude of voluntary associations that has emerged in African cities in recent years. In many cases, they are a response to mounting poverty, failing infrastructure and services, and more generally, weak or abdicating urban governments. Some associations are new, in other cases, existing organizations are taking on new tasks. Associations may be neighbourhood-based, others may be city-wide and based on professional groupings or a shared ideology or religion. Still others have an ethnic base. Some of these organizations are engaged in both day-to-day matters of urban management and more long-term urban development. Urban associations challenge the monopoly of local and central government institutions.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)