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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 157

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Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003
Jan Grund, Bjorn Hennestad, Jon-Arild Johannesen, Agneta Karlsson, Johan Olaisen
The objective of this paper is to contribute to a perspective on economic performance; i.e. the interaction between norms specific to a company, the knowledge basis of the company and innovation. The main questions in this article are: What is the connection between norms specific to the company, the knowledge basis of the company and innovation? The main thesis in the article is that a companys capabilities are primarily developed on the basis of social norms and values already existing in the social relations of the company. This in turn influences how the company develops and applies the knowledge basis, thus influencing innovation strategies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Pierre Romelaer
The present paper lists the management constraints that impact on innovation in business firms. Some of these constraints may thwart innovation, or make it slower, others may accelate the process or increase the number of innovations in the firm, others still may influence the nature of the innovations which the firm will endeavour. Only management constraints are considered here, i.e those constraints pertaining to the interface between intention and really implemented action, as well as those influencing the intention in a partially predictible manner. The related interfaces may be formalized (e.g. management tools and methods like the business plan), they may be partially or totally informal (e.g. the power system, or the innovation process itself). It may be that some of, or all the actors in the innovation do not perceive, or perceive with a bias, the very existence of the constraint, i.e. of the link it has with innovation. The first part of the paper is devoted to the constraints that impinge upon senior managers, lower level managers and others involved in the innovation process (paragraphs 1 and 2). The constraints are then viewed from an organizational standpoint (what they are in different types of organizational structures, what is the contribution of different organizational vital systems), and through models of the innovation process produced by empirically valid organization research (paragraphs 3 and 4). The paper ends with some considerations on the origin of innovative ideas and on the usefulness of constraints for innovation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2003
Ред.: Avner Offer
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 312 с.
Is wealth the same as happiness? How is the quality of life to be evaluated, measured and most importantly, achieved? The authors provide provocative answers to these questions and many others in this interdisciplinary study which covers a variety of topical issues the environment, women and the family, the impact of advertising and consumerism, and the role of government.

Is wealth the same as happiness? How is the quality of life to be evaluated, measured, and most importantly, achieved? The articles here provide provocative and engaging answers to these questions in this new, multidisciplinary and pragmatic approach to an important area of social research. Taking the individual as the point of departure, the contributors consider both objective circumstances and their subjective impact on peoples lives. Topics include the psychology of subjective well-being, destitution and basic needs, the environment, women and the family, illness and health, employment and work, and the role of the state.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Hanisch, Volker Beckmann, Silke Boger, Marcus Brem
Studies of the transition process remind us of Stiglitz’s comparison between pathology and the economic analysis of institutions (1989): asking what went wrong and what did not is the essence of understanding the functioning of social systems. Thus, carefully conducted empirical studies of the transition process itself may yield elucidative results applicable not only to theory but also to institutional policy changes in transition. This paper presents the key findings of KATO, a comprehensive research project focussing on the transition process of agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe. From 1997 to 2000, the project empirically examined processes of liberalization and market development, privatization and property rights changes, as well as restructuring and path dependencies in three Central and Eastern Europe countries: Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Conclusions on three analytical levels are drawn: (1) the empirical design for analyzing rapidly changing and evolving institutions in transition economies, (2) the suitability of different theoretical approaches for understanding transition, and (3) policy recommendations targeting better governance and an improved institutional framework.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Karen Macours
This paper analyzes the functioning of land rental markets in the Dominican Republic using a new data set collected specifically to characterize the entire market. We analyze the choice of the landlords and the tenants in the search for the optimal partner. We show how insecure property rights leads to segmentation in the tenancy markets along socio-economic group and hence severely limits access to land for the rural poor.
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Inside Sports [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-08-2006
Ред.: Jay J. Coakley, Peter Donnelly
Изд-во: Routledge, 1999, 248 с.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2005
John L. Campbell
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004
This book is about institutional change, how to recognize it, when it occurs, and the mechanisms that cause it to happen. It is the first book to identify problems with the "new institutional analysis," which has emerged as one of the dominant approaches to the study of organizations, economic and political sociology, comparative political economy, politics, and international relations. The book confronts several important problems in institutional analysis, and offers conceptual, methodological, and theoretical tools for resolving them. It argues that the paradigms of institutional analysis--rational choice, organizational, and historical institutionalism--share a set of common analytic problems. Chief among them: failure to define clearly what institutional change is; failure to specify the mechanisms responsible for institutional change; and failure to explain adequately how "ideas" other than self-interests affect institutional change. To demonstrate the utility of his tools for resolving the problems of institutional analysis, Campbell applies them to the phenomenon of globalization. In doing so, he not only corrects serious misunderstandings about globalization, but also develops a new theory of institutional change. This book advances the new institutional analysis by showing how the different paradigms can benefit from constructive dialogue and cross-fertilization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-09-2006
Few large institutions have changed as fully and dramatically as the U.S. healthcare system since World War II. Compared to the 1930s, healthcare now incorporates a variety of new technologies, service-delivery arrangements, financing mechanisms, and underlying sets of organizing principles.
This book examines the transformations that have occurred in medical care systems in the San Francisco Bay area since 1945. The authors describe these changes in detail and relate them to both the sociodemographic trends in the Bay Area and to shifts in regulatory systems and policy environments at local, state, and national levels. But this is more than a social history; the authors employ a variety of theoretical perspectives—including strategic management, population ecology, and institutional theory—to examine five types of healthcare organizations through quantitative data analysis and illustrative case studies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Michela Ascani, Gaetano Martino
This paper aims to examine some aspects of the Rural Development policies in the light of the conceptualization of institutional complementarities. Actually, an increasing amount of analytical outcomes emerges in inquiring the relationship between specific institutional arrangements and the kind of economic and social problems they may solve. This suggests that under that view some chances of enhancing the knowledge about rural policy making models may be exploited. Actually, the rural systems constituting the European Rural territory show specific and complex institutional orderings defining a rural institutional field. This field calls for specific analysis and policy models. The market and the State are the main entities taken into account in specifying policy patterns in the Rural Development’s field, whereas a communitarian framework is often considered a rooted characteristic of the European rural development processes. The communities’ constituting processes is often not fully considered in the rural development studies. Even if the scholars have usually recognised a correspondence between Community and Rural System, this correspondence has still to be analysed. The paper would examine some Rural Development Policies (i.e. under the EU regulation 1257/99), by taking into account the roles of the market, the State, and the Community. In particular the communitarian field seems of interest in integrating different policy making levels, thus we would delineate the role of the Rural Development Policies in constituting or fostering Rural Communities. The Hohfeld-Commons analytical structure of rights and duties will be considered to this purpose. Then the analytical framework will be taken into account to delineate some opportunities for future scenarios emerging from the CAP reform.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2008
Ред.: Agnes Labrousse
Изд-во: Springer, 2000, 384 с.
German Ordoliberalism and French Regulation theory, two institutionalist theories born in different national contexts, show striking convergences and complementarities. Based on an original comparison, Institutional Economics in France and Germany analyses the basic concepts, the development and the present relevance of both schools, the way they deal with the crucial methodological issue of complexity and with transformation in post-socialist Europe. It underlines the specificity and fruitfulness of these European approaches to institutional economics, often unfortunately ignored in the English-language literature. Written by leading scholars, this book is a clear presentation of both theories, with numerous illustrations and in-depth analysis of recent research developments. This theoretical, methodological and thematic comparison raises central issues in the growing field of socioeconomic and institutionalist theory.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2003
Shigeto Tsuru is one of Japans most respected senior economists. In these lectures, he provides a reappraisal of institutionalism as a school of thought and discusses its relevance for the issues which the economic profession today must tackle.
Tsuru reconsiders Marxian political economy as an institutionalist school, which provides a context for the following discussion of J. M. Keynes, Joseph Schumpeter and Thorstein Veblen. He goes on to present the four key elements of modern institutionalism - i.e., the open-system character of the economy; the problem of planning; the evolutionary process of modern economics; and the normative character of economics - by way of an examination of three present-day institutionalists, Gunnar Myrdal, John K. Galbraith, and K. William Kapp. Tsuru concludes with an evaluation of modern institutionalism and the future of institutional economics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 14-10-2003
This major book provides an accessible introduction to the burgeoning discipline of institutional economics, and to the central issues of private property rights and their competitive use. The book develops the issue from fundamental premises about human cognition and motivation. The book will not only be welcomed by the student of economics but will also be essential to jurists, business managers, anthropologists, sociologists, political scientists, social historians and moral philosophers.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Marijke D'Haese, Wim Verbeke, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Johann Kirsten, Luc D'Haese
Durban, 2003
Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for the farmer to develop a viable business.

This article investigates on the effect of membership in the local shearing shed association on the farmers. revenue. A two-step regression model of the gross margin is used to analyse whether farmers selling through the local association have better financial records as compared to those who sell their wool to local traders. This article exemplifies how institutional innovation through local marketing associations can contribute to economic development in poor rural areas.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2003
Russell Hardin
Washington, 1999
Хардин в своем докладе рассматривает знания, заключенные в институтах и роль институтов во взаимоотношениях экономических агентов. Благодаря специфическим характеристикам институтов, некоторые решения могут реализовываться намного лучше посредством институтов, нежели отдельными индивидами. Ex ante все могут выиграть от создания института, однако ex post для некоторых создание института может привести к издержкам.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Lilyan E. Fulginiti, Richard K. Perrin, Bingxin Yu
Durban, 2003
Agricultural productivity in 41 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from 1960 to 1999 is examined by estimating a semi-nonparametric Fourier production frontier. Over the four decades the estimated rate of productivity change was 0.83% per year, although the average rate from 1985-99 was a strong 1.90% per year. Former UK colonies exhibited significantly higher productivity gains than others, while Liberia and countries that had been colonies of Portugal or Belgium exhibited net reductions in productivity. We measure a significant reduction in productivity during political conflicts and wars, and a significant increase in productivity among those countries with a measure of political rights and civil liberties.
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