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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 144

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
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все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Andrea Bonfiglio, Emilio Chiodo
2004
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the overall impact produced by the application of European development policies for rural areas of the Italian Marche region for the period 2000-2003. Towards this aim, the input-output approach is adopted. A Marche regional I-O table is firstly constructed using a hybrid method. To evaluate the overall impact throughout the territory, two models are developed and applied recursively: an interregional I-O model and a gravity model. As for the former, sub-interregional I-O tables are constructed, where the regions under study are, on one hand, the functional area receiving funds and, on the other hand, the rest of the Marche region. The gravity model is instead used to allocate among the other areas the impact calculated for the rest of the region. To show how the impact is distributed among regional areas, a Geographical Information System is used. The paper concludes illustrating the main results in terms of overall impact generated by policy and providing some considerations related to policy effectiveness.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-05-2008
Anna Grandori
2002
The paper outlines a new pluralistic method for analyzing, assessing and improving corporate governance structures in their traits relevant both for financial and for human capital providers. The framework seeks to enlarge the rather universalistic approach to governance structures ranking used in the economic (principal-agent) approach, introducing sensitiveness to some relevant contingencies. Among the contingencies, task complexity and innovativeness is supposed to matter, as well as the configuration of motivations and preferences of capital providers which are supposed not to be uniform but to be predictable in their main configurations. The framewok is design-oriented and aimed at improving corporate governance configurations in a generative way, based on the discovery of superior matches between the preferences of different cathegories of capital providers over governance mechanisms (rather than focused, as usual, on the comparative assessment of discrete realized models). The approach is relational in two ways: it builds governance structures on pairwise analyses of effective matches among preference configurations; it builds governance structures as nexuses of complementary governance mechanisms (effective matches among mechanisms).
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006
Colin Crouch, David Finegold, Mari Sako
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 296 с.
This study of vocational education in advanced industrial countries contributes to two different areas of debate. The first is the study of the diversity of institutional forms taken by modern capitalism, and the difficulties currently surrounding the survival of that diversity. Rather than analysing economic institutions and governance in general, the authors specifically focus upon the key area of skill creation. The second theme is that of vocational education and training in its own right. While sharing the consensus that the advanced countries must secure competitive advantage in a global economy by developing highly-skilled work forces, the authors draw attention to certain awkward aspects of this approach that are often glossed over in general debate: 1. The employment-generating power of improvements in skill levels is limited: employment policy cannot depend fully on education policies; 2. While the acquisition of skills has become a major public need, there is increasing dependence for their provision on individual firms, with government action being restricted to residual care for the unemployed, rather than contributing at the leading edge of advanced skills policy. Covering France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the UK, and the USA, this book provides a unique approach to education and training within the broader political and economic environment. As such, it will appeal to students, teachers, and practitioners concerned with vocational training, human resource management, industrial relations, and the sociology of the economy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rajeev Ahuja, Johannes Jutting
2003
Community based micro insurance has aroused much interest and hope in meeting health care challenges facing the poor. In this paper we explore how institutional rigidities such as credit constraint impinge on demand for health insurance and how insurance could potentially prevent poor households from falling into poverty trap. In this setting, we argue that the appropriate public intervention in generating demand for insurance is not to subsidise premium but to remove these rigidities (easing credit constraint in the present context).

Thus from insurance perspective as well, our analysis highlights the importance of having appropriate savings and borrowing instruments for the poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ulrich Koester
2003
In contrast to expectations held by western observers in 1990, the farm structure in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the Countries of Independent States has not converged to the one prevailing in the West. In particular, remarkable changes in Russian agriculture in recent years have let to the emergence of new agricultural holdings combining under one umbrella many large farms. Does this unexpected development, unprecedented even in the West, contradict conventional wisdom about the determinants of farm size in agriculture? This paper argues that in transition economies external institutions seem to be more important than economies of scale and transaction costs on the farm in determining farm size. Whilst the birth of family farms in Russia seems to have been mainly constrained by embedded institutions of could-be family farmers and partly by second level institutions, the survival and the creation of holdings has been strongly supported by second and third level institutions, but embedded institutions have played also a role. Consequently, recent developments in Russia do not support the view that large farms or even holdings are more efficient than small or medium size family farms in an environment, which prevails in western market economies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
Richard Clarida, Jordi Gali, Mark Gertler
2003
Authors study the international monetary policy design problem within an optimizing two-country sticky price model, where each country faces a short run tradeoff between output and inflation. The model is sufficiently tractable to solve analytically. Authors find that in the Nash equilibrium, the policy problem for each central bank is isomorphic to the one it would face if it were a closed economy. Gains from cooperation arise, however, that stem from the impact of foreign economic activity on the domestic marginal cost of production. While under Nash central banks need only adjust the interest rate in response to domestic inflation, under cooperation they should respond to foreign inflation as well. In either scenario, flexible exchange rates are desirable.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan
2003
Many developing countries are attempting to address the inequities of plant breeders' rights by incorporating farmers' rights provisions in their Plant Variety Protection legislations to reward the role of farmers as conservers and enhancers of agro-biodiversity. Developing countries expect to generate substantial revenues for biodiversity conservation or for community reward schemes through the application of farmers' rights provisions. This paper applies a patent-renewal model to assess the economic returns appropriated by plant breeders from new (protected) varieties in developed countries. The estimates confirm a widely held view in the literature that plant variety protection is a relatively weak form of IPR protection which allows plant breeders to appropriate only limited returns from their innovations. Consequently, the application of farmers' rights provisions in a manner akin to breeders' rights is unlikely to be a source of significant revenue to developing countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ernst Berg
2002
This paper investigates the farm level impacts of multiple peril yield and revenue insurance in an expected value-variance framework. The analysis is conducted using stochastic simulation jointly with numerical optimisation. Simulation is used to compute the means and variances of revenues as affected by the insurance schemes under consideration. In a second step these results are incorporated in a whole-farm programming approach, which optimises a portfolio that consists of crop production and insurance activities. The results of a case study indicate that from the farmer's point of view there is an incentive to buy multiple peril crop insurance, because it significantly reduces the variability of income. The risk reduction through insurance in turn leads to a specialisation of the production program. The farm level benefit of crop insurance strongly depends on the decision maker's degree of risk aversion. Furthermore, risk free parts of the total income reduce the economic attractiveness of insurance schemes. This applies e.g. to the area payments under the European agricultural policy, which therefore limit the potential demand for crop insurance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
Jose Angel Zuniga Vicente, Jose David Vicente Lorente
2002
In this exploratory study, the authors set out to develop and test a dynamic and integrative framework on strategic change. On the basis of theoretical arguments and prior empirical evidence from the adaptation and inertial perspectives, the researchers propose an original empirical model to examine whether potential determinants of strategic change remain stable over time in a hypercompetitive environment. The authors look for an answer to this question in the Spanish private bank industry during a period of high strategic mobility as consequence of continuous and drastic environmental transformations. The results strongly support that the effect of potential determinants of strategic mobility in this industry did not remain stable over the whole period of analysis. From this point of view, the study sheds new light on major debates and dilemmas in the field of strategy regarding why firms change theirs competitive patterns over time, and hence whether the adaptation and inertial views really must be considered as complementary perspectives. Furthermore, the paper introduces two important methodological innovations which facilitate future empirical replies. First, the definition and measurement of strategic change by employing a new grouping method, the MCLUST. Second, the control of the non-observable heterogeneity using panel data models for logit regression.
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Asset Pricing [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003
John H. Cochrane
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000
Every day, the financial markets bravely price trillions of dollars in such risky securities as stocks, bonds, options, futures, and derivatives. The systematic determination of their values--asset pricing--has developed dramatically in the last few years due to advances in financial theory and econometrics. In one of the most highly anticipated books in financial economics, John Cochrane unifies and brings this science up to date for the benefit of advanced students and professionals. Cochrane traces the pricing of all assets back to a single idea--price equals expected discounted payoff--that captures the macroeconomic risks underlying each security's value. By using a single, stochastic discount factor rather than a separate set of tricks for each asset class, Cochrane builds a unified account of modern asset pricing. He presents applications to stocks, bonds, and options. Each model--consumption-based, CAPM, multifactor, term structure, and option pricing--is derived as a different specification of the discount factor. The discount factor framework also leads to a state-space geometry for mean-variance frontiers and asset pricing models. It puts payoffs in different states of nature on the axes rather than mean and variance of return, leading to a new and conveniently linear geometrical representation of asset pricing ideas. Cochrane approaches empirical work with the Generalized Method of Moments, which studies sample average prices and discounted payoffs to determine whether price does equal expected discounted payoff. He translates between the discount factor, GMM, and state-space language and the beta, mean-variance, and regression language common in empirical work and earlier theory. The book also includes a review of recent empirical work on return predictability, value and other puzzles in the cross section, and equity premium puzzles and their resolution. Written to be a summary for academics and professionals as well as a textbook for advanced graduate students, this book condenses and advances recent scholarship in financial economics.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Gudbrand Lien
2002
Stochastic budgeting is used to simulate the business and financial risk and the performance over a six-year planning horizon on a Norwegian dairy farm. A major difficulty with stochastic whole-farm budgeting lies in identifying and measuring dependency relationships between stochastic variables. Some methods to account for these stochastic dependencies are illustrated. The financial feasibility of different investment and management strategies is evaluated. In contrast with earlier studies with stochastic farm budgeting, the option aspect is included in the analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Arne Tostensen, Inge Tvedten, Mariken Vaa
Изд-во: Nordic Africa Institute, 2001, 320 с.
The book contains 17 chapters with material from 13 African countries, from Egypt to Swaziland and from Senegal to Kenya. Most of the authors are young African academics. The focus of the volume is the multitude of voluntary associations that has emerged in African cities in recent years. In many cases, they are a response to mounting poverty, failing infrastructure and services, and more generally, weak or abdicating urban governments. Some associations are new, in other cases, existing organizations are taking on new tasks. Associations may be neighbourhood-based, others may be city-wide and based on professional groupings or a shared ideology or religion. Still others have an ethnic base. Some of these organizations are engaged in both day-to-day matters of urban management and more long-term urban development. Urban associations challenge the monopoly of local and central government institutions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian Binfield, Gary Adams, Robert Young, Patrick Westhoff
Zaragoza, 2002
Most of the large scale modeling systems used in the analysis of agricultural policies produce deterministic projections. In reality, however, the agricultural sector is subject to a high degree of uncertainty as a result of fluctuations in exogenous factors such as the weather or macroeconomic variation. A stochastic approach can provide additional information to policy makers regarding the implications of this uncertainty, through the use of stochastically generated projections.

This paper also shows how deterministic analysis may result in systematic errors in the projection of some variables. As an applied example, the FAPRI model of the US agricultural sector is simulated stochastically to analyse the impact of proposals for the new US farm bill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Stephan Cramon-Taubadel, J. Meyer
2002
In this paper we survey the literature on asymmetric price transmission. This literature contains a substantial share of publications by agricultural economists. After classifying the different types of asymmetric price transmission in section 2, we describe the explanations for asymmetric price transmission that have been proposed in section 3. In section 4 we focus on the econometric techniques used to quantify asymmetry. Section 5 concludes with a discussion of outstanding methodological problems and suggestions for future research. Our main conclusion is that the existing literature is far from being unified or conclusive, and that a great deal of work remains to be done. A wide variety of often conflicting theories of and empirical tests for asymmetry co-exist in the literature. Furthermore, existing tests are not discerning in the sense that they as a rule to do not make it possible to choose between competing explanations for asymmetry on the basis of empirical results. Therefore, after more than three decades of work, a considerable need for further research remains, and it would appear premature to draw far reaching conclusions for theory and policy on the basis of work to date.
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