Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22319
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke, Oriel Sullivan British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 331-347.
Some macro-sociological questions about changes in broad categories of time-use are addressed. Reference is made to some well-known sociological and historical accounts of such change, and to the fact that time-use diary data has only relatively recently become available for analyzing trends over time. The data used are drawn from a comparative cross-time data archive held by the Institute for Social and Economic Research at Essex University, comprising successive time-use diary surveys from a range of industrialized countries collected from the 1960s to the 1990s. The time use evidence suggests relative stability in the balance between work and leisure time over the period covered by the analyses. Some alternative explanations are advanced for why there seems to be a gap between this evidence and, on the one hand, the burgeoning literature in both academic and popular media addressing the time famine and, on the other, people's professed experience of what is happening to their time.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 293-312.
The BSE problem as an example of the globalization of risk is examined. In order to determine whether the globalization of risk is a social construction depending on the context, the particular role of organizations is emphasized. An empirical comparison is made of the BSE-related risk-constructions of 5 business associations in the German meat industry sector. Results show that the associations construct the risk in close relation to their horizons of globalization, thereby reflecting provision problems, which the companies they are representing face. While the main organizational domains in the sector tried to cope with the risk problem by different means of local market closure, one association, founded in reaction to the BSE problem, took over a reflexive role with regard to the emerging risk communication on BSE in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sawako Shirahase British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 391-408.
This paper discusses whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into Japan's labor market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husbands' class positions. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husbands'. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labor market but also to the division of labor by gender within the household.
The material and the symbolic in theorizing social stratification: Issues of gender, ethnicity and class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Floya Anthias British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 367-390.
Within most approaches to stratification gender and ethnicity are seen to pertain primarily to the symbolic or cultural realms, while class is regarded as pertaining to material inequality. This constructs gender and ethnic positioning as entailing honor, deference, worth, value and differential treatment (sometimes expressed through the notion of status), but the social relations around these are themselves not seen as constitutive of social stratification. This study rethinks social stratification away from the polarity between the material and the symbolic, and argues that material inequality, as a set of outcomes relating to life conditions, life chances and solidary processes, is informed by claims and struggles over resources of different types, undertaken in terms of gender, ethnicity/race and class. This formulation allows for the inclusion of these categorial formations, alongside class, as important elements of social stratification i.e. as determining the allocation of socially valued resources and social places/locations.
Testing the modernization hypothesis and the socialist ideology hypothesis: A comparative sibling analysis of educational attainment and occupational data [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Inge Sieben, Paul M. De Graaf British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 441-467.
This study presents a comparative sibling analysis. This allows for the testing of 2 major social mobility hypotheses: the modernization hypothesis and the socialist ideology hypothesis. Survey data on brothers in England, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, and the US is employed, covering a historical period from 1916 until 1990. Results show that the effects of parental social class on educational attainment are smaller in technologically advanced societies, and that the effects of parental social class on occupational status are smaller in social-democratic and communist societies. In addition, the total family impact on occupational status declines with modernization. But overall, it is observed that the family of origin has not lost its importance for its sons' educational attainment and occupational status yet.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sara Arber, Jay Ginn British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 519-539.
This study examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyzes variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using 3 years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income.
Class structure in a deeply divided society: Class and ethnic inequality in Israel, 1974-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Meir Yaish British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 409-439.
Despite the fact that in many societies ethnicity plays an important role in stratification processes, a common view held by students of stratification argues that the role of ascriptive criteria in stratification processes is diminishing, and that the main axis of the modern stratification system is rooted in the division of labor in the marketplace. Despite this, most Israeli sociologists have taken the ethnic and national cleavages to be the main axes of stratification in Israel. This paper utilizes the 1974 and 1991 mobility surveys in Israel to examine changes over time in the association between ethnicity/nationality and class position in the Israeli stratification structure. It also examines the extent to which inequality of opportunity within the Israel class structure is affected by ethnicity/nationality. Here it is found that the ethnic/national cleavage in Israel appears to have played a less important role over time in the allocation of Israeli men to class positions.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Manuel Castells British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 541-546.
Manuel Castells responds to an essay by Abell and Reyniers criticizing his work. Castells describes the essay as an angry refusal of the entire intellectual effort that he has submitted to collegial consideration, proceeding on the basis of selected paragraphs quoted out of context, and a series of unfounded statements. In Castells' view, Abell and Reyniers's is a marginal attitude in today's diverse and tolerant intellectual world.
Values-intuitive rational action: The dynamic relationship of instrumental rationality and values insights as a form of social action [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Phillip A. Woods British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 4. P. 687-706.
This paper is concerned with the implications for conceptualizing social action which arise from a consideration of whether human beings are capable of knowing ultimate (universal, unconditionally valid) values. This issue is framed within the view that the validity of our understanding of social action is inextricably linked with the validity of our conception of humankind: the scope and variety of social action has potentialities and limitations that are inscribed by the nature of human beings qua human beings. The paper suggests an enlargement, through the addition of a proposed conceptual tool, of the framework that comprises Weber's typology of social action. It argues that the common human properties of the person in whom social action is embedded should not arbitrarily exclude questions of the genesis of values.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bill Martin, Judy Wajcman British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 4. P. 559-578.
This article examines the objective and subjective aspects of managerial careers in six large firms that have experienced organizational restructuring. We begin by assessing the dominant models of change in career structures, particularly those which emphasize the portfolio route to career success. Although elements of the bureaucratic career remain, we find some evidence of the shift predicted by these models amongst the younger generation of managers. However, it is striking that not all young managers are able to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the new career model. Indeed, cultural capital has an increasing impact on career achievement. Younger managers are responding by reorienting away from organizational loyalty towards a concern with individual career projects.
Edge cities and the viability of metropolitan economies: Contributions to flexibility and external linkages by new urban service environments [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David L. McKee, Yosra A. McKee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. p. 171-184.
Economists have had little to say concerning the impact of Edge Cities in metropolitan complexes, much less about how they relate to the economy in general. The present paper is aimed at those concerns. It begins with a general overview of the Edge City concept as put forward by Joel Garreau. Following that it discusses metropolitan change in a pre-Edge City format. It then considers Edge Cities in the context of growth poles and discusses their role in providing economic linkages that facilitate change. The intent is to provide a better understanding of the impact of Edge cities upon host metropolitan areas and the economy at large.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 519-545.
The aim of this paper is to present the economic sociology of Vilfredo Pareto. It is argued that Pareto represents a mode of thinking that has not been used in economic sociology and barely considered in the other branches of sociology. The habitual bifurcation of Pareto into the economist and the sociologist is rejected. Pareto stresses the non-logical parts of human life, and he provides empirical examples of this in his writing. He was occupied with the dynamics in society as a result mainly of non-logical actions. It is shown how one may speak of a distinctly Paretian economic sociology, which primarily has its origin in his theoretical discussions. It is also shown that Pareto conducted empirical studies drawing from his version of economic sociology. Included is a presentation, as well as a discussion of Pareto's idea of rentiers and speculators, which is followed up by a more general discussion of economic types in the market.
Анализ соответствий [словарная статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-12-2002Юлиана Николаевна Толстова АНАЛИЗ СООТВЕТСТВИЙ (или анализ корреспондентный) - метод описания взаимосвязи двух номинальных переменных в пространстве небольшой размерности, основанный на разложении статистики (хи-квадрат). Метод анализа соответствий использует двухвходовую таблицу сопряженности, в результате обработки этой таблицы можно получить единое пространство для переменных столбцов и строк. А.с.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-12-2002Вадим Валерьевич Радаев Знание - сила. 1998.
Сегодня слова о российском "среднем классе" начинают мелькать все чаще и чаще. При этом говорящие о нем делятся в целом на два больших лагеря. Первые сетуют на то, что "средний класс" все никак не появится, и усматривают в этом трагедию реформенной России. Вторые утверждают, что "средний класс" уже сформировался, но мы просто не определили пока его границ и "штатного состава". Что же скрывается за красивой вывеской "Добро пожаловать в средний класс!", кто принадлежит к среднему классу (или надеется принадлежать)? Да и о "середине" ли вообще идет речь? Мы говорим "средний", а подразумеваем нечто большее. В рассуждениях слышится намек на удачное решение некой крупной проблемы, затрагивающей экономику, политику и социальную сферу. Однако в чем суть этой проблемы?
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Michael Hout, Clem Brooks, Jeff Manza American Sociological Review. 1995. Vol. 60. No. 6. P. 805-828.
We present evidence of a historic realignment in the relationship between class and voting behavior in U.S. presidential elections in the postwar period. We take advantage of recent advances in class analysis and statistical methodology to introduce a distinction between "traditional" class voting and "total" class voting. Neither shows a decline in the postwar era. The realignment occurred since 1968, as professionals and nonmanagerial white-collar workers moved from voting for Republicans to supporting Democratic presidential candidates. Stronger support for Republicans among the self-employed and among managers has more than offset the shift of professionals and nonmanagerial white-collar workers to the Democrats. Skilled blue-collar workers have become volatile, moving away from their historic support for the Democratic Party without firmly attaching themselves to the Republican Party. Significant class differences in voter turnout also contribute to the total association between class and voting outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Kim Quaile Hill, Jan E. Leighley American Journal of Political Science. 1996. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 787-804.
Research on historical and contemporary American party systems suggests how political party and party system attributes are relevant to class-specific mobilization. The more liberal and competitive the Democratic party in a state, the greater the mobilization of lower-class voters. Liberal and competitive Democratic parties will enhance turnout of the lower classes more than that of other classes. The latter relationships will be stronger in off year elections than in presidential elections. Pooled time-series and cross-sectional analyses of turnout are conducted by social class, state, and year for 1978 through 1990. The first two hypotheses about party attributes and class-specific mobilization are strongly supported, but only in presidential election years.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Nan Dirk De Graaf, Paul Nieuwbeerta, Anthony F. Heath American Journal of Sociology. 1994. Vol. 100. No. 4. P. 997-1027.
The authors test several hypotheses about the impact of intergerational class mobility on political party preferences. Test using cross-national data sets representing Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States over the period 1964-90 suggest a process of acculturation to the class of destination. The authors hypothesized that a class with a high degree of demographic identity influences newcomers more than a class with low demographic identity does and that, the more left-wing inflow there is into a class, the more likely the immobile members are to have left-wing political preferences. The data did not confirm these hypotheses. A macro analysis does, however, show that the level of class voting is weakened by a compositional mobility effect.
How to compare apples and oragnes: Poverty measurement based on different definitions of consumption [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Jean Olson Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw Review of Income and Wealth. 2001. Vol. 47. No. 2.
Poverty rates calculated on the basis of household consumption expenditures are routinely compared across countries and time. The surveys which underlie these comparisons typically differ in the types of food and non-food expenditures included, often in ways which are easily overlooked by analysts. With several examples we demonstrate that these commonly occurring variations in expenditures definitions can give rise to marked differences in poverty rates where there are no real differences in well-being. We show that one approach to calculating poverty lines, used with headcount measurement of poverty, can allow comparisons based on data with different definitions of consumption. In addition to allowing comparative poverty analysis using existing survey data, the results suggest that poverty monitoring could be done effectively at lower cost by alternating detailed expenditures surveys with far more abbreviated surveys.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Branko Milanovic, Shlomo Yizhaki Review of Income and Wealth. 2002. Vol. 48. No. 2.
Using the national income/expenditure distribution data from 111 countries, we decompose total inequality between the individuals in the world, by continents and regions. We use Yitzhakis Gini decomposition which allows for an exact breakdown of the Gini. We find t hat Asia is the most heterogeneous continents; between-country inequality is much more important than inequality in incomes within countries. At the other extreme is Latin America where differences between the countries are small, but inequalities within the countries are large. Western Europe/North America is fairly homogeneous both in terms of countries mean incomes and income differences between individuals. If we divided the world population into three groups: The rich (those with incomes greater than Italys mean income), the poor (those with income less than Western countries poverty lie), and the middle class, we find that there are only 11 percent of people who are world middle class; 78 percent are poor, and 11 percent are rich.