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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 142

Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2007
Эдуард Сальманович Кульпин Социологический журнал. 1994.  № 3. С. 193-195. 
Рецензируется первый номер социально-гуманитарного журнала (главный редактор В.И. Мануйлов), основную идейную и тематическую направленность которого можно определить как самопознание и саморазвитие российской провинции. В номер вошли культурологические размышления о городе В. Глазычева, результаты социологических исследований А. Очкиной, наблюдения американского исследователя русской провинции Д. Рэли; дневники Д. Фибиха, относящиеся к 1914?1917 гг., отрывок из романа Р. Гуля «Конь Рыжий», публицистика А. Тугарова, письмо колхозника А. Тарасова земляку-писателю П. Замойскому и т. д. По мнению автора рецензии, возможный замысел издателя журнала — соединить интеллектуальные силы провинции, подвигнуть провинцию совершить то, что не могут пока сделать столицы, то есть через самопознание беспорядок и хаос переломного времени заменить цивилизованной свободой.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2007
Сергей Александрович Ушакин Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. 2004.  Т. 7. № 2. С. 160-172. 
Используя два текста в качестве образца - статью К. Гирца «Насыщенное описание» (1973) и книгу П. Рабиноу «Размышления о полевой работе в Морокко» (1977) — автор обсуждает две ведущие традиции в американской социокультурной антропологии. Если последователи Гирца обычно подчеркивают герменевтические и интерпретативные аспекты антропологического письма и этнографического исследования, то те, кто разделяет взгляды Рабиноу, основываются на эстетически ориентированном восприятии реальности. Отказ от рассмотрения «глубинных», «объективных» или, по крайней мере, «объективированных» структур и мотиваций, которые могут определять человеческое поведение, приводит в данном случае к повышенному вниманию к процессам и событиям, сфокусированным на самом исследователе.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2007
Павел Васильевич Романов, Елена Ростиславовна Ярская-Смирнова Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. 2004.  Т. 7. № 2. С. 115-137. 
Авторы рассматривают взаимосвязи двух интеллектуальных перспектив — социологии тела и социальной политики. Тело оказывается в фокусе постмодернистских и постструктуралистских подходов, тогда как анализ социальной политики относится к позитивистскому и менеджералистскому проекту. Однако эти две перспективы пересекаются, в частности, когда социальная политика рассматривается как система контроля над телом. Использование теорий тела, включая феноменологический и критический подходы, для анализа социальной политики плодотворно, т. к. позволяет интерпретировать телесный опыт пожилых, инвалидов, женщин, мужчин и детей — пациентов, клиентов, тех граждан, которые испытывают на себе прямое и косвенное воздействие социальной политики, а также вскрыть властные отношения и проявления неравенства в тех практиках и установлениях, которые задумывались в целях достижения социальной справедливости.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006
В.Л. Круткин Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. 2005.  Т. 8. № 1. С. 171-178. 
Фотографирование ввело в повседневность новый опыт видения, придало новый инструментальный орган телу человека, ибо именно тело, а не сознание находится в центре опыта. Интересным для анализа является не только фотографирование событий, но и само событие фотографирования. Здесь развивается опыт, невозможный вне этого ритуала: реализуется контроль над ситуацией через ее стандартизацию, рубрикацию, иерархизацию. Здесь открывается идеология визуальных форм, устанавливающая нормы фотографирования и их понимание. Усвоение социального опыта означает, помимо прочего, освоение его визуальной составляющей — умения видеть и умения быть видимым. Быть видимым — это шаг к тому, чтобы «быть Я». За «цензурой вида» скрывается социальный контроль. Альбом как форма массовой культуры и своего рода фольклора хранит наборы прецедентных образов, позволяющих судить о социальных изменениях.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Борис Зусманович Докторов Социологический журнал. 1994.  № 3. С. 4-19. 
Публикуется текст выступления на симпозиуме «Россия в межкультурном пространстве», проведенном Институтом социологии РАН и «Социологическим журналом» в апреле 1994 г. Исследование представляет собой часть международного проекта, более десяти лет разрабатываемого Международным исследовательским институтом социальных изменений (RISC). Автор строит социокультурное пространство, в котором можно разместить и описать различные общности: социальные и демографические группы, страты, население отдельной страны и совокупности стран. Вывод о специфике социокультурной ориентации той или иной общности делается в зависимости от ее расположения на социокультурной плоскости (карте). С помощью математических процедур на этой карте выделены десять типологических групп и построена социокультурная диаграмма населения России. Проведено сравнение ценностных структур населения России и Западной Европы, России и Восточной и Центральной Европы.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Robert P. George, Jean Bethke Elshtain
Spence Publishing Company, 2006, 336 с.
The movement for same-sex marriage has triggered an unprecedented crisis in the social norms and laws governing marriage. All great civilizations have sought to unite, in the institution of marriage, the goods of sexual intimacy, childbearing and childrearing, and life-long love between adults. But the last five decades have witnessed the erosion of marriage as a public institution in the developed world. The separation of the goods previously united in marriage has led thoughtful people to question why marriage should be denied to homosexuals. This volume brings together the best of contemporary scholarship on marriage from a variety of disciplines—history, ethics, economics, law and public policy, philosophy, sociology, psychiatry, political science—to inform, and reform, public debate. Rigorous yet accessible, these studies aim to rethink and re-present the case for marriage as a positive institution and ideal that is in the public interest and serves the common good. The essays in this volume were presented to an audience of scholars, journalists, public policy experts, and other professionals, at a conference sponsored by the Witherspoon Institute. The authors are among the most eminent authorities on marriage and public policy in the English-speaking world.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Catherine Hakim
Ashgate, 2004, 298 с.
This book reports on two comparative nationally representative surveys of men and women in Britain and Spain, two countries chosen to illustrate the diversity of modern European societies. The British survey was funded within the ESRC Future of Work Research Programme and was carried out by the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Using these surveys, Catherine Hakim presents a study of ideal models of the family and family roles, work orientations, patriarchal values, and lifestyle preferences, showing how these impact on women's marital histories, fertility, employment patterns, occupational segregation, and labour mobility, but not on men's labour market participation. Lifestyle preferences and work orientations have a strong impact on women's activities, and especially on married women's employment choices, but patriarchal values (which are most commonly studied by social attitude surveys) have virtually no impact on behaviour. The analyses demonstrate that political and religious values have virtually no connection with orientations to employment and family roles. The book also covers educational homogamy, housing classes and contrasts between ethnic minority groups in core values and labour market participation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Edward O. Laumann
Изд-во: University of Chicago Press, 2004, 435 с.
We think of the city as a place where anything goes. Take the sensational fantasies and lurid antics of single women on Sex in the City or young men on Queer as Folk, and you might imagine the city as some kind of sexual playground—a place where you can have any kind of sex you want, with whomever you like, anytime or anywhere you choose.

But in The Sexual Organization of the City, Edward Laumann and company argue that this idea is a myth. Drawing on extensive surveys and interviews with Chicago adults, they show that the city is—to the contrary—a place where sexual choices and options are constrained. From Wicker Park and Boys Town to the South Side and Pilsen, they observe that sexual behavior and partnering are significantly limited by such factors as which neighborhood you live in, your ethnicity, what your sexual preference might be, or the circle of friends to which you belong. In other words, the social and institutional networks that city dwellers occupy potentially limit their sexual options by making different types of sexual activities, relationships, or meeting places less accessible.

To explain this idea of sex in the city, the editors of this work develop a theory of sexual marketplaces—the places where people look for sexual partners. They then use this theory to consider a variety of questions about sexuality: Why do sexual partnerships rarely cross racial and ethnic lines, even in neighborhoods where relatively few same-ethnicity partners are available? Why do gay men and lesbians have few public meeting spots in some neighborhoods, but a wide variety in others? Why are African Americans less likely to marry than whites? Does having a lot of friends make you less likely to get a sexually transmitted disease? And why do public health campaigns promoting safe sex seem to change the behaviors of some, but not others?

Considering vital questions such as these, and shedding new light on the city of Chicago, this work will profoundly recast our ideas about human sexual behavior.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Tamara K. Hareven
Walter de Gruyter, 1995
This volume features some of the papers prepared by international scholars for a 1991 conference on "aging and generational relations over the life course" at the University of Delaware.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Tamara K. Hareven
Изд-во: Westview Press, 1999, 374 с.
One of the prevailing myths about the American family is that there once existed a harmonious family with three generations living together, and that this "ideal" family broke down under the impact of urbanization and industrialization. The essays in Families, History, and Social Change challenge this myth and provide dramatic revisions of simplistic notions about change in the American family. In these interdisciplinary essays that are deeply rooted in history, Hareven provides important perspectives on family relations in the present, dispels myths about family relations in the past, offers new directions in research and interpretation, and revises our understanding of social change. Hareven's essays, which are based on thirty years of research, combine empirical evidence with theoretical frameworks and discussions of the state of the art in this exciting field. The essays cover a wide spectrum of issues and topics such as the organization of the family and the household, the networks available to children as they were growing up, the role of the family in the process of industrialization, the division of labor in the family along gender lines, and the relations between the generations in the later years of life. Coincidentally, the essays revolve around three central themes: The family's interaction with the process of industrialization, the life course, and the development of the field of family history--and its future directions. They are both interdisciplinary and cross-cultural. Professor Hareven is a pioneer and leader in the development of the field of family history. Her work makes a major contribution to the theoretical and substantive aspects of scholarship on family life, past and present, and on social change. Her essays also provide a fine understanding of this field's development.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Joseph Rykwert
Изд-во: Oxford University Press, 2004, 320 с.
The subtitle to this, the tenth book by architecture professor (and lively writer) Joseph Rykwert--namely, "The City in the Twenty-First Century and Beyond"--is a whopping misnomer. It is only in the final chapter that Rykwert pays attention (and briskly, even then) to urban developments of recent years and to what we might expect in the 100 years to come. What this book really is, despite what its subtitlers intended, is at once a broad-ranging and satisfyingly detailed social history of some of the great cities of the modern world (mostly the Western one, with a marked emphasis on the two cities Rykwert calls home--New York and London--plus Paris) and an inquiry into how well they have served the material and spiritual lives of the people who inhabit them.

Ranging comfortably and coherently back and forth between the Old World and the New, Rykwert begins with the Industrial Revolution, its factories, the throngs of poor country people that flooded the cities to work in them, and the subsequent 150-year challenge faced by urban centres to house, transport and entertain these throngs cheaply, space-consciously and hygienically. But Seduction of Place is not so much a people's history of the city as it is a vibrantly researched and chronicled play-by-play of the big public--and some private--works of the major metropolises. The book also tackles the luminaries--including Haussmann, Olmstead and Vaux, L'Enfant, and Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand (who pioneered the enduring school of axial planning at Paris' Ecole Polytechnique)--whose names are often uttered in the same breath as the parks, boulevards and edifices they brought to life.

Social critics like Tocqueville, Marx, Engels, Fourier and Ruskin are just as well represented here, however, ably providing the basis for Rykwert's persistent question of what cities ought to be and how responses to that have diverged and evolved over the years, apart from what they have become, for better or ill, and how they got that way. Even though the book takes a more or less familiar course through the 20th century--from the emergence of subways, skyscrapers, and modernism through post-war urban planning, suburban sprawl, and subsequent urban decay and attempts at renewal--Rykwert knows when to dart away from well-known people, places and things to chronicle the planning of lesser-known English "New Towns" or of distinctly 20th-century cities like New Delhi, Islamabad, Australia's Canberra, and--rather famously--Brasilia, the ultimate "zoned" city.

The final chapter pays the requisite nod to the postmodernist implications of, for example, Celebration, Florida, (Disney's controversial new spin on the "company town") but is really distinguished by Rykwert's startlingly on-the-mark reading of how such wildly popular mega-museums as the new international Guggenheim franchise (with Gehry's Bilbao "branch" currently eclipsing Wright's New York "flagship") have come to best personify the encroachment of corporate globalisation in the urban civic realm. It is a fitting conclusion for a book that manages so gracefully to wed an engrossing history of urban growth with the deeper intellectual, cultural and ethical questions it raises--the very questions that the speculators, preservationists and "ordinary citizens" will still have to answer in creating and sustaining the great cities of the 21st century. --Timothy Murphy --
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Jane Jacobs
Vintage, 1970, 288 с.
The book advances two propositions, one in the field of archaeology, the other in economics. Traditional archaeologists had always presumed that a city could only appear where there was enough food for a great number of inhabitants not producing food exclusively to exist. Hence, agriculture logically preceded the city. Jacobs argues that the opposite is true. It is through trade in wild animals and grains that people in cities discovered agriculture and then exported it (like our modern factory towns) to the outskirts of the city itself. In this work Jacobs also tackles the question of economic booms. Great cities with flourishing economies have had one of these economic booms. She asserts that it is through import replacement that cities have such economic growth. She also asserts that cities are at the root of all economic growth (agricultural, manufacturing, technology, information, etc) and therefore import replacement is the cause to all economic growth. In an interview with Bill Steigerwald in Reason Magazine (06/01), Jacobs said that if she is remembered for being a great intellectual she will be remembered not for her work concerning city planning, but for the discovery of import replacement.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2006
Manuel Castells, Ida Susser
Изд-во: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2002, 448 с.
Manuel Castells, the most influential urban theorist of our time, has revolutionized modern thought on the processes of advanced capitalism and the generation of inequality. This collection of Castells' classic writing, which also includes two new essays written specifically for this book, reflects the panoramic breadth of his knowledge, the clarity of his approach, and the scholarly rigor and intellectual depth of his theoretical methods. Editor Ida Susser, through her own experience and collaboration with Castells, has selected his most significant essays and placed them within a theoretical and historical context. The Castells Reader on Cities and Social Theory is an essential resource for students and scholars of sociology, anthropology, political science, and urban studies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2006
Arturo Almondoz
Изд-во: Routledge, 2002, 288 с.
More than anywhere else in the world, Latin American capitals were influenced by the importation of European urban culture and urbanism. While the urban and planning history of some of these cities has been studied, particularly in Spanish, this is the first comprehensive work in English to describe the social and morphological evolution of the capital cities of Latin America, as the most conspicuous stages of the Europeanism during the post-colonial period. The transfer of urban ideas through European models and representatives is explored, showing how this importation lead to the development of urbanism as a discipline in the countries concerned. In his introductory chapters Arturo Almandoz provides a historical survey of Latin American urban development and reviews the period most influenced by European ideas -from mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, after which American influence led to a very different, technically-based approach to planning. There follows a series of case studies devoted to individual cities, each extensively illustrated and written by authorities on the city concerned. The cities are Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Santiago de Chile; Mexico City, Lima; Havana, Caracas, San José.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Robbie B.H. Goh, Brenda S. A. Yeoh
Изд-во: World Scientific Publishing Company, 2003, 228 с.
Theorizing the Southeast Asian City as Text examines the ways in which culture, ethnicity, languages, traditions, governance, policies and histories interplay in the creation of the urban experiences in contemporary Southeast Asian cities. It focuses on the ways in which urban spatial forms are textual experiences, subject to interpretative strategies and the influence of other discourses. In addition it also analyzes the experiences of modernization in such cities, but also in terms of the strategies of containment, refurbishment, and loss which this has occasioned.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Deborah Stevenson
Изд-во: Open University Press, 2003, 192 с.
*What is distinctive about urban life?
*What key trends have shaped the contemporary city?
*How have the city and urban cultures been explained by sociology and cultural studies?

This is the first book to explore cities and urban life from the perspectives of both sociology and cultural theory. Through an interdisciplinary approach and use of case material, the book demonstrates that the 'real' city of physicality and struggle and the 'imagined' city of representations are entwined in the construction of urban cultures.
Starting with a comparison of the rural and the urban, the book considers ways of imagining the city and of conceptualising urban cultures. It goes on to investigate the implications of several pivotal urban and cultural trends, such as the use of the arts and local cultures in city re-imaging, and the ways in which modernism, postmodernism and globalisation have shaped the built environment and the orientation of academic enquiry. Also examined is the way in which representations of the urban landscape in film, literature, art, and popular texts, have informed dominant ideas about the way certain city spaces - including city centres, urban waterfronts, and so-called 'global cities' - should look, function and 'feel'.
Designed as a text for undergraduate courses in cultural studies, sociology and wider social science, this book traces the development of urban environments from the nineteenth century to the present, and illuminates the nature of urban life.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Lewis Mumford
USA: Fine Communications, 1998, 668 с.
Harcourt, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Lewis Mumford's massive historical study brings together a wide array of evidence--from the earliest group habitats to medieval towns to the modern centers of commerce (as well as dozens of black-and-white illustrations)--to show how the urban form has changed throughout human civilization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Lewis Mumford
Изд-во: Thomson Learning, 1970, 586 с.
An analysis of the communities, buildings, and surrounding regions which have characterized cities from medieval times to the present
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Anthony P. Cohen, Katsuyoshi Fukui
Изд-во: Edinburgh University Press, 1993, 228 с.
Essays originally presented to the symposium, The Age of the City: Human Life in the Twenty- First Century, held at The International House, Osaka, Japan, 27-30 March 1990 and published with the support of the Senri Foundation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Arne Tostensen, Inge Tvedten, Mariken Vaa
Изд-во: Nordic Africa Institute, 2001, 320 с.
The book contains 17 chapters with material from 13 African countries, from Egypt to Swaziland and from Senegal to Kenya. Most of the authors are young African academics. The focus of the volume is the multitude of voluntary associations that has emerged in African cities in recent years. In many cases, they are a response to mounting poverty, failing infrastructure and services, and more generally, weak or abdicating urban governments. Some associations are new, in other cases, existing organizations are taking on new tasks. Associations may be neighbourhood-based, others may be city-wide and based on professional groupings or a shared ideology or religion. Still others have an ethnic base. Some of these organizations are engaged in both day-to-day matters of urban management and more long-term urban development. Urban associations challenge the monopoly of local and central government institutions.
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