One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account
inequality within countries. We suggest a relatively easy and intuitive approach
which allows to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of
the income distribution. This allows comparisons of the level in human development
of the poor and non-poor within and across countries. An empirical illustration shows
large discrepancies in human development within countries especially in Africa. These
discrepancies are lower the higher the HDI, but only weekly so. Inequality in income
is generally higher than inequality in education and life-expectancy.