Поколения XX века: возможности исследования
Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2006
Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены. 2001. № 5 (55). С. 7-14.
The time frames of forming up (socialization) the certain age groups that fall on particularly significant critical periods seem to be of primary importance. The number of such periods in Russia's XX century — and accordingly of "meaningful" generations — is six: 1) "Revolutionary turning point", conditionally 1905-1930 years (is not represented now in the sample); 2) "Stalin's" mobilization system of 1930—1941 years (4% of a grown-up population; 3) War and immediately following post-war period of 1941-1953 (7%); 4) "The thaw" // "Ottepel" of 1953-1964 (21%); 5) "Zastoy" // "Stagnation" of 1964-1985 years (39%); 6) The years of the "Perestroyka" and "reforms" — 1985-1999 (28%). The change of the generational types in the most mass, "local" groups of town and rural inhabitants is determined by other factors and has another chronology determined by such phenomena as war, hunger, collectivization, passport system, migration to towns, introducing and canceling the distribution of goods by cards, mass house-building in the towns, automobilization, the development of consumption in non-deficit conditions, default in 1998, etc.
It seems legitimate to talk about the generations and mechanisms of their dynamics also in connection with some more limited, specific groups that act in professional or caste-secluded environments — it concerns military, bureaucratic, academic and other elite environments. The higher (powerful) bureaucracy of the soviet period evidently was also one of the types of the secluded generational groups.
The past XXth century had known the periods of relative social stability but it had never, on no turn seen steadily working mechanism of generational change and continuity — neither in Tzar's years, nor in soviet years, nor in post-soviet years.
The people that started independent life in the 90-s, that is born about 1975—1980 will become the most active generational group in the nearest years. In that century it is the first generation of the pragmatics devoid of the historical (institutionalized) social memory.
Социологические исследования. 2004. № 10. С. 31--41.
Farewell to the tusovka: masculinities and femininities on the Moscow youth scene in Gender, Generation and Identity in Contemporary Russia, ed. By Pilkington H, Routledge:London&New York, 1996. pp. 237-264
Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены. 2000. № 6 (50). С. 8-14.
'Youth culture' in contemporary Russia: gender, consumption and identity, in Gender, Generation and Identity in Contemporary Russia, ed. by Pilkington H, Routledge: London & New York, 1996. pp. 189-237
Социологические исследования. 2004. № 10. С. 42-48.
Социологические исследования. 2012. № 5. С. 140-144.
Социология: теория, методы, маркетинг. 2005. No. 1. P. 8-35.