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Имущественная дифференциация населения

русская версия

Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2006
Property Differentiation of Population (by Natalya Bondarenko, Marina Krasilnikova). Studying the issue of well-being differentiation in Russia that has become of particular significance recently includes the analysis of such important feature as property status of people. Being closely connected with the level of current income, the level of accumulated household property evidently reflects "the well-being history" of a family, the level and dynamics of incomes in the former periods of life, makes up the basis for consumer behaviour both at present and in the nearest future. Assessment of a family property status is a steadier characteristic than the current income. It's because of this that in periods of rapid socio-economical changes, unstable economical development, the description and measuring of the amount of accumulated household property may give more precise evidence of the changes in well-being level. Moreover, making up the indicator of household property filling is necessary for amending the conventional characteristic of families well-being level, the current monetary income, especially by the results of sociological surveys.
Though the object of our analysis, household property, is obviously a complicated one, it is necessary to construct an indicator which can be easily quantitatively described and measured for one household, on the one hand, and could allow for reasonable and conspicuous comparisons of the levels of various families well-being, on the other hand. An approach to measuring property status and the level of its differentiation suggested in this paper is based on constructing an indicator equal to a number of durable goods out of a specially made up list of 10 goods which are indicators of the level of family well-being. Indicator goods were chosen on the basis of the following criteria: the urgency of a goods list during a long period of time, sufficient level of goods spreading, monotonously increasing probability of spreading goods with family well-being growth, due to family incomes growth, that is less "loaded" by the signs of prestige and social status; simplicity and obviousness of questions asked about property items, etc.
The constructing of the indicator "a household property filling" had been suggested by VCIOM as far back as in 1995. In this article the "work" of this indicator on the data of 2000 surveys is evaluated. The comparison of the findings of 1995 and 2000 surveys showed that it is possible even at present to use the set of 10 items for assessment the current family economic situation, that this list includes the main "sign" items. Therefore this indicator was also used for estimating the dynamics of material well-being for the families with different monetary incomes and for comparing the dynamics of living standards in the regions of Russia.
The possibilities of using the suggested indicator "a household property filling" for applied analysis are sufficiently diverse. The distribution of subjective evaluations of economical status, evaluations of social status, evaluation judgment on economic situation in the suggested groups of various property well-being is demonstrative enough, as it allows to trace the correlation between family financial position and consumer and social attitudes, expectations, the level of families adaptation to the emerging socio-economical system.
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