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Russian Society Is Looking Forward To Market Relations: Anxieties, Expectations And Hopes

русская версия

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010
Мир России. 1992.  Т. 2. № 1. С. 39-65. 
The author presents the analysis of the statistical data and empirical evidences of the research project "Our values today", and the results of comparative analysis of similar indicators in the rest of world drawing particularly from American experience. Problem area treated as emergence of the new type of social actors in economy sector under the transition lo market relations. There is the overwhelming need for root-and-branch communist economic system. The steps that needed lo be taken arc well known: to abandon price controls, to break up most slate monopolies, to privatize most industry and agriculture, to create a banking system, that would lean money to entrepreneurs, to remove many of the controllers now imposed by government and party planners, to slash government spending, they open up the economy lo world trade by making the rouble convertible to foreign currencies. The basis for such a formidable array of reforms is liquidation of the state control over ownership and goods-producing. Only complete realization of these reforms would prevent towering inflation and high unemployment, not least among government and party functionaries who suddenly has nothing lo do. The author underlines that the way towards recapitalization of our economy is unacceptable for our society. She builds up a typology of the quasireformation that is only possible today: 1) Modifications only of the form of management. In this case slate monopoly in economical sector remains unchangeable. 2) Legitimization of the large scale private-ownership that creates the basis for normal competitive relations on the labour market. The recent results of the researches prove that mass reaction on new alternative sector in economy is quite tolerant, and even more, the prestige's rating of new occupations (like entrepreneur) is much more higher than analogical indicator for state sector. Based on the strong factual evidences the author underlines that the content may be recognized in terms of three key problems: 1) Emergence of the most numerous category of physical workers. 2) A shift in the socio-economic status and political orientations of intelligencia under the market relations. 3) The perspectives of the middle-class institutionalization. The author revealed that the last "hope for civilization" in our country is connected with the new economicallyactive group highly educated, engaged in the main branches of industrial sector. The analysis shows that their social characteristics are quite relevant to the middle-class prerequisites. This new social group includes workers, peasants and inlelligencia; activity oriented on the realization of their intellectual and creative potential, hard-working effectively in order to establish more higher quality of life. For the policy of Russian social renovation much more attention is needed on group expressions of class interests, the channels of vertical social mobility, and social forces which produce change in our system.
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