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LOBALIZING GERMPLASM: BARRIERS, BENEFITS, AND BOUNDARIES / доклад на 24 конференции IAAE, Tomorrow’s Agriculture: Incentives, Institutions, Infrastructure and Innovations, Berlin, Germany, 13-18 August 2000

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Berlin, 2000
This essay seeks to shed light on the causes and potential consequences of restricted germplasm flows among nations. My objective is to provide a synthesis of existing literature and events of which I was a part, with a focus on food security in poor countries. Regrettably, the mechanisms restricting flows are complicated, the data on the size and direction of flows are meager, the outcomes are uncertain, and the policy mechanisms for alleviating the problems are largely untested. My general hypothesis is that four separate forces are now interacting in ways that should worry everyone concerned with the transfer of technology, particularly improved crop varieties, to scores of the world’s poorest nations. These elements include: new provisions on intellectual property, especially patenting in the United States; an increased concentration of new enabling technologies into a few large multinational companies; heightened anxieties over transgenic foods, especially in Europe; and new problems arising from old ambiguities in the Convention on Biodiversity. Individually, these components are reasonably well understood. Collectively, however, they are poorly understood, and their combined impact on the poorer countries of the world is very troublesome.

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См. также:
David F. Labaree
Sociology of Education. 1986.  Vol. 59. No. 1. P. 42-57.