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Stakeholder market orientation and performance in sports business

Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Подтип: PhD
Тематические разделы: Менеджмент, Маркетинг

The marketing concept is fundamental to practice and scholarship in the field of marketing. Simply stated, the marketing concept advocates that customers and the market drive business performance. In the literature, the marketing concept has been defined and operationalized using the market orientation construct. This literature is replete with examples of the relationship between market orientation and performance. Most commonly, market orientation is defined as a customer focus and performance is assessed with financial measures. This study broadens both the market orientation and performance constructs in an interesting context—sports. Specifically, it investigates the effectiveness of organizations that adopt and implement market-oriented practices toward multiple stakeholders. Stakeholder market orientation (SMO) is presented as an extension of conventional customer market-oriented practices to all the important stakeholders of an organization. Market orientation is a long-term perspective but is typically related to short-term financial benchmarks. This study extends the operationalization of the performance construct through an adaptation of the Balanced Scorecard. As such, the use of both financial and non-financial measures of performance is employed to better capture the effect of a market orientation. The research examined a robust cross-section of intercollegiate athletic departments. College athletic departments are an appropriate sample as these organizations interact with a variety of stakeholders that are vital to the success of the organization. A questionnaire was developed, piloted and distributed to all members of the National Association for Collegiate Marketing Administrators (NACMA). The effective response rate was 26% (n = 110). Results indicated that both customer stakeholder importance and non-customer stakeholder importance are positively correlated with performance. However, non-customer stakeholder importance led to a significantly higher level of performance than customer stakeholder importance. Overall SMO was shown to have a positive impact on business performance. While the marketing concept identifies the customer as the critical focus for business success, other stakeholders may be the focus of an organization's expenditure of resources. This study has discovered that a traditionally defined customer market orientation is not always the most significant orientation an organization can adopt to positively impact performance.