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русская версия

Опубликовано на портале: 09-02-2011
Мир России. 1997.  Т. 6. № 1. С. 3-28. 
Тематический раздел:
The article is dedicated to the history of evolution of the Russian TV market. Using the historical material about the Soviet TV the author analyses the particularities of its functioning, demonstrates that in the years 1960-1980 Soviet TV was a unified and single institution of the State. TV worked according to the following main principles:-   it was financed from the state budget;-   the state had a monopoly over the programs production and broadcasting;-  TV had a centralized hierarchical structure and administrative, beurocratic methods of management. TV was the most important ideological institution of the Soviet state and was considered to be an effective tool of mass information, propaganda and of bringing up the working class in the communist spirit. This model of state TV also called "authoritarian", "state monopolistic", "totalitarian" existed in the USSR up to the beginning of 90-ies when the era of commercial TV has began. The history of commercial TV is given in the article through the history of the rise of the commercial channels 2x2, NTV, TV-6, the changes within the ORT. With more or less details the article examines different institutions of the TV market: the market of TV advertisement, the market of TV programs, the market of technical equipment (professional video equipment), the market of telecommunications. The article examines the chief tendencies of the development of the TV market: commer­cialisation, regionalisation of TV, the appearance of a multichannel structure, the introduction of paid TV