The article by V. Mau is devoted to long-term challenges in the development of Russia — in terms of E. Gaidar’s scientific heritage. It presents a methodological approach to the analysis of the country’s development, consider the economic policy and economic reforms of the 1990’s. In the article by A. Nechaev the myths and realities of the reforms, shock therapy are examined, the role of Gaidar, who saved the country from the bloody drama is traced. A. Aganbegyan pays special attention to the scientific heritage of E. Gaidar, considering him worthy of the title of academician. S. Dubinin distinguishes leadership abilities of Gaidar, allowed him to become the head of complex transformations which have no analogues in the world.