The article is devoted to the psychological basics of formation of opportunistic behavior's economic costs, considering the institutional environment influence. The place of opportunistic behavior is viewed as a variety of individual activity. The author approves that economic optimization is the particular case of the satisfying adaptation processes directed to ensure a balance in a homeostatic system including conditions for carrying out biogeocenosis studies of the individual. The role of opportunistic behavior as the compensation mechanism is shown; adaptation strategies and behavioral solutions are considered in the context of the frustration, as well as the institutional and logistical environment influence on business process. The frustration mechanism effect on the occurrence of different types of economic costs is analyzed.The influence of psychological, institutional and economic factors on formation of transaction costs of opportunistic behavior is demonstrated.